History of Psych Exam 3

emilyeaco's version from 2016-10-17 22:46

Section 1

Question Answer
Erasmus Darwinthought that God created the universe, then stepped back and let it evolve until he was needed again
Jean-Baptiste Lamarckbehavior theory of evolution; any changes in bodily form are due to adaptation
Charles Lyellgeologist, takes evolution and applies it to geology (each is the way it is because of it's changes in development)
Juan HuarteChildren's individual differences to make learning better for them/more personalized
Francis GaltonCoined the term eugenics, created a lab that tested mental capabilities, also reinvented the word association test
George Romanescreated the mental ladder; and used anecdotal method and introspection by analogy
C. Lloyd MorganProposed the law of Parsimony (use simple terms if you can); and gave methods of comparative psych a more scientific basis and had the first large scale of experimental animal studies
Herbert Spencerdeveloped social Darwinism
Samuel ButlerBelieved that machines have already evolved

Section 2

Question Answer
Henry Hollerithdeveloped a new way to process info; this way was faster, cheaper, and could process more than ever before and lead to punch cards
G. Stanley HallLots of firsts and created the recapitulation theory (when you want to look at the development of a person, it mirrors the development of humanity)
Founder of FunctionalismNo one (no one had the ambition to found it)
John DeweyBelieved the reflex arc is not an arc, it's a curve; said that through experience, we update our perceptions
James Rowland Angellcame up with mental acts (operations), fundamental utilities of consciousness (3 parts), and psychological relations (total relationships between organism and environ.)
Robert WoodworthSaid the subject matter for psychologists was both consciousness and behavior; used introspection and creates dynamic psychology
James McKeen Cattell (mental testing)coined the term, dealt primarily with sensorimotor measurements (not actual intelligence)
Alfred Binetdeveloped the first true psych test of mental ability; introduced the concept of mental age
William JamesInfluential to the functionalism movement and psych due to his clear writing, opposed Wundt's goal to break consciousness, and offered an alternative way of looking at the mind and consistent functionalism

Section 3

Question Answer
University of ChicagoJohn Dewey, James Rowland Angell, and Henry A. Carr
Fundamental Utilities of Consciousness3 parts: (1) any structures and functions that exist today, exist because they serve some adaptive advantage over an organism. (2) Consciousness exists today and therefore muse serve some purpose for people today. (3) The job of the psychologist is to figure out exactly how that function occurs.

Section 4

Question Answer
Goodardintroduced the term moron (meaning slow)
Termanadopted the concept of intelligence quotients (IQ)
SpearmanG-factor, general intelligence, factor analysis to analyze all the existing intelligence tests were basically the same, believed cognitive ability can be assigned a number
Goodenoughdraw-a-man-test, nonverbal test for children
Thurstonedeveloped the primary mental abilities test battery (group of intelligence tests), tests multiple intelligence
Lightner WitmerFather of clinical psych, coined the term clinical, said why we needed clinical, recognized emotional and cognitive problems could be affected by physical problems (hearing disability, bad eyesight, etc.), opened the first psych clinic in the world
Walter Dill Scottlots of firsts again, Law of suggestibility- you can suggest behavior on people by having sympathy, sentimentality, and emotion; He focused on selecting the best employers for jobs
Hugo Mustenbergforensic psych (eye witness testimony is often inaccurate), psychotherapy (mental illness was just a behavior maladjustment problem), industrial psych (best way to increase job efficiency, productiveness, and satisfaction was to select workers for position that matched their mental and emotional abilities