History Ch. 23

rosesarered's version from 2015-05-25 20:36

Section 1

Question Answer
iron curtainline between the Communist nations and the free nations
Cold Warfour decades after WWII of apprehension, hostility, and competition between the Soviet Union and the U.S. without open combat
motives fueling Soviet expansionfear of the West, zeal for their idealogy, and desire for power
Marshal Tito(Josip Broz) Yugoslavian who established a Communist government but insisted on greater degree of independence from Moscow
Truman DoctrinePres. Truman's 1947 principle that the U.S. would support any country threatened by Communist aggression
containment"long term, patient but firm...containment of Russian expansive tendecies" - major objective of American foreign policy during Cold War
Marshall Plan(or European Recovery Act) - 1948, purpose was to thwart any advance of communism in Western Europe by rebuilding those countries economically
NATO(North Atlantic Treaty Organization) 1949, regional military alliance to ensure defense against Soviet expansion, included U.S., Canada, Great Britain, France, Italy, + more
Warsaw PactSoviet counterpart of NATO, created by Soviet Union
arms racecompetition between U.S. and Soviet Union to produce more powerful nuclear and conventional weapons

Section 2

Question Answer
limited warswars contained to specific geographic areas
Korean War 1950-53, began when N. Korean forces invaded S. Korea
Douglas MacArthurAmerican general who led UN forces (American and S. Korean troops) in Korean War - was fired for publicly expressing his opinion which was contrary to Truman's
38th parallelborder between North and South Korea
Vietnam War 1963-75, began when Japan captured French Indochina, which included Vietnam, during WWII and the French wanted Vietnam back, however the French declared their independence and a war ensued
Ho Chi MinhVietnamese Communist who declared Vietnam's independence
Battle of Dien Bien Phumajor victory for Vietnamese Communists against French by annihilating a major French army
17th parallelVietnam was divided into two parts at 17th parallel, Communist north and non-Communist south
Viet CongCommunist guerrillas
SEATO(Southeast Asia Treaty Organization) - 1954, member nations agreed to consult with each other concerning any Communist aggression, pledging military assistance against Communist menance, included U.S., Great Britain, France, and several non-Communist Asian nations
domino theoryif Vietnam fell to Communism, then other countries of Asia would fall like dominoes (by Eisenhower)
Gulf of Tonkin ResolutionAmerican Congress authorized Pres. Lyndon Johnson to "take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against forces of the U.S. an to prevent further aggression
Tet offensiveViet Congs' coordinated attack that demonstrated their strength
vietnamizationNixon's gradual American withdrawal from Vietnam, turning the burden of the fighting over to the South Vietnamese
Fidel CastroCommunist dictator who seized power in Cuba and allied country with Soviet Union
Bay of Pigswhen Kennedy aborted American support of missioni to oust Castro in CIA missioni that resulted in failure

Section 3

Question Answer
Nikita Khrushchevbecame leader of Soviet Union after Stalin's death
"peaceful coexistence"between Khrushchev and Eisenhower
Sputnikfirst man-made earth satellite that caused competition between U.S. and Soviet Union in race for space
U-2 incidentan American U-2 spy plane was shot down while flying over Russian territory, caused Khrushchev to break off talks at Paris summit conference
Cuban Missile CrisisU.S. discovered that the Soviet Union was installling missiles in Cuba and Kennedy insisted that the missiles be removed and ordered a blockade of Cuba, Sovet Union backed down and U.S. achieved major victory without resorting to war
detenterelaxation of tensions
SALT(Strategic Arms Limitations Talks) 1972 - treaty between Nixon and Soviet Union which limited the amount of weapons that each superpower could possess
Ronald ReaganU.S. Pres. elected in 1980, determined to restore America's prestige and denounce evils of communism
SDI(Strategic Defenese Initiative) called Star Wars, new weapons system designed to use American space, laser, and satellite technology to provide a shield against incoming Soviet missiles
reasons for decline of Soviet Empiregrowing unrest of people of Eastern Europe who suffered under Soviet rule, unsettled leadership in Soviet Union, economic woes, enormous drain of national wealth spent of defense
Mikhail Gorbachevnew Soviet premier who called for restructuring to increase industrial productivity, stimulate technological development, restructure inefficient bureaucracy, decentralize management of economy, and experiment with a free-market system
perestroikawide range of social, political, and economic reforms
Solidaritypowerful labor union
Lech Walesahead of Solidarity and leader of the movement for reform and resistance, elected president of Poland
Boris Yeltsinex-Communist whose support of reform helped him be elected president of Russia, the largest of the Soviet republics
Commonwealth of Independent StatesCIS

Section 4

Question Answer
"Great Leap Forward"reforms of Mao's to improve Chinese agriculture and bring industry up to Western standards, attempts wrecked Chinese steel industry and caused a famine
"Cultural Revolution"Mao's attempt to stir up zeal for radical communism
Tiananmen Squaresite where in April 1989 a group of students began a demonstration. in June military forces crushed the movement killing 2000 students in the process
"Great Society"climax of trend of big government policies - Lyndon Johnson's
civil rights movementmovement to ensure equal civil rights for African Americans
St. Lawrence seawayopened in 1959 - system of locks/channels/canals that allow a vessel to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes
Pierre Trudeauprme minister of Canada during time that liberals controlled government, 1968-84
Brian MulroneyConservative who became prime minister after Trudeau resigned, established strong ties with U.S.
Carlos Salinasbecame pres. of Mexico in 1988, top priority was privatization of industry, his policies lowered inflation and reduced Mexico's foreign debt, also won Mexico's inclusion in NAFTA
NAFTANorth American Free Trade Agreement, helped increase standard of living of Mexicans and provided jobs and opened American border to increased trade
Zapatistasdisgruntled farmers in Chiapas who revolted led by mysterious "Subcomandante Marcos"
Konrad Adenauerfirst chancellor of West Germany in 1949, held position for 14 years, rebuilt Germany, followed strong pro-West policy
Charles de Gaulleleader of Free French during WWII, led provisional government until 1946
Fifth Republica government with a constitution that provided for a strong pres., replaced Fourth Republic,
Margaret ThatcherConservative who became Great Britian prime minister, known as "Iron Lady"

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