History Ch. 21

rosesarered's version from 2015-05-12 19:47

Section 1

Question Answer
dolegovernment relief for the unemployed
Ramsay MacDonaldfirst Labour Party prime minister of Britain
Statute of Westminister1931 - Britain declares Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa to be free
Leon Blumnamed French prime minister by the Popular Front
Maginot LineFrench line of defense that protected her border from Switzerland to Belgium
October 1929U.S. stock market collapsed
Franklin RooseveltU.S. President who inherited the Great Depression
New Dealprograms of relief, recovery, and reform to get the U.S. out of the Great Depression
bureaucracynonelected officials who handle government affairs

Section 2

Question Answer
totalitarian states (characteristics)1. Use of propaganda to promote the ideas/programs of the state 2. Use of secret police to arrest/assasinate those who opposed the state/policies 3. Emphasis on goals of state rather than individual rights 4. State control of every aspect of life 5. Government maintained by force and not accountable to the people for its actions 6. 1-party political system led by a powerful dictator
propagandamaterials and methods of indoctrination
Alexander IIIRussian czar - attempted to suppress revolutionary ideas and activities
pogromsorganized government massacres
Nicholas IIRussian czar -
BolsheviksRussian violent political party (split off from Mensheviks)
MensheviksRussian peaceful political party
Russo-Japanese War1904-05 - brought popular discontent to surface
Bloody Sundayday when many peaceful protesters were killed - turned loyalty of Russians away from czar
DumaRussian national assembly
Rasputinevil Russian monk
Alexander KerenskyMenshevik who tried to restore order in Russia
Vladimir Leninleader of Bolsheviks, marxist, became dictator of Russia
Leon TrotskyRussian communist leader
USSRUnion of Soviet Socialist Republics
war communismtightly regulated system of economic controls
New Economic PolicyNEP - temporary retreat from communism to rescue the Russian economy and to quiet the growing anti-communist sentiment
Joseph Stalinnew dictator of USSR
Five-Year Plansseries of programs designed by Stalin to build up industrial production and collectivize agriculture - turned country to socialism
purgesmurders by Stalin
Comintern"Communist International" - established by Lenin to found Communist parties in other countries and to take action in producing revolution
facismItalian totalitarian government
NazismGerman totalitarian government
differences beteen facism and Nazismfacism: privately owned businesses but government controlled, nationalistic, military dictatorship, glorifies the state - Nazism: government owns and controls businesses, classeless international society, dictatorship of the proletariat, teaches state will wither away
Benito MussoliniItalian facist dictator
Il Duce"leader" or "commander" title Mussolini used for himself
autarkyability of Italy to produce everything she needed
syndicatesItalian divisions of the work force
Lateran Treatiespopular agreements between Italy and the Roman Catholic Church
Reichstag(has to with German government/Parliament/legislature)
Weimar Republicweak German government
Adolf Hitlercruel German Nazi dictator
Mein Kampf"My Struggle" book written by Hitler while in prison
swastika"broken cross" infamous Nazi symbol
reasons for Hitler's rise to power1. The Weimar Republic was weak/inefficient 2. The Nazis used the German anger of the "war guilt" clause to further their cause 3. Economic problems caused many to listen to Nazi promises of economic recovery 4. Hitler and Nazis were anti-Communist which pleased the Germans 5. Hitler's charisma, personal leadership, and use of propaganda drew people to the Nazis
Paul von Hindenburgpresident of the republic, appointed Hitler as chancellor of Germany
GestapoNazi secret police

Section 3

Question Answer
expressionismstyle of art where the artist expresses emotioon rather than what he sees
Henri Matisseexpressionist painter
cubismstyle of art in which perspective with a single viewpoint was abandoned
Pablo Picassocubist painter
Louis SullivanAmerican architect who developed the skyscraper
Walter Gropiusarchitect who popularized functionalist architectural style in Europe
Frank Lloyd WrightAmerican architect who blended buildings into the surroundings
Igor StravinskyRussian composer, father of modern music, developed polytonality
Arnold SchonbergAustrian composer who created atonal music
polytonalityusing several keys simutaneously
atonal musicbasing compositions on a 12-tone scale, giving no special emphasis to any one tone
T. S. Elliotpoet who portrayed desolation and meaninglessness
Thomas MannGerman novelist whose characters were victims
James Joycedeliberately obscure novelist