History Ch. 20

rosesarered's version from 2015-05-09 23:44

Section 1

Question Answer
reasons for hopeinternational cooperation, international efforts at peace,
reasons for fearextreme nationalism, militarism, imperialism, rival alliances
steps towards warbuilding of Bismark's system, breakdown of Bismark's system, testing of the alliance system

Section 2

Question Answer
Alfred NobleSwedish chemist who established the Nobel Peace Price - made fortune by inventing dynamite
Andrew Carnegiephilanthropist, American steel manufacturer - donated funds to build Peace Palace in the Netherlands
chauvinismunbridled nationalism
Bismark's Systemsystem of alliances that Bismark created
Three Emperors' LeagueGermany, Austria-Hungary, Russia (Bismark's first alliance)
Dual AllianceGermany, Russia (Bismark's second alliance)
Triple AllianceGermany, Austria-Hungary, Italy in anti-French coalition (Bismark's third alliance)
Reinsurance TreatyGermany, Russia - 1887 secret alliance
Wilhelm IIbecame kaiser(emperor) of Germany, forced Bismark to resign, committed many mistakes
Entente CordialeBritain, France - scared of Germany, "friendly understanding"
Triple EntenteRussia, Britain, France
June 28, 1914Francis Ferdinand assasinated, spark that ignited WWI
Francis Ferdinandheir to throne of Austria-Hungary, assasinated 6/28/1914
ultimatumlist of demands with threats
mobilize make ready
Central PowersGermany, Austria-Hungary
AlliesRussia, Serbia, France
Schlieffen Plan
Paul von HindenburgGerman general who defeated Russians
U-boats(from Unterseeboot) German submarines
LusitaniaBritish passenger liner sunk by Germans, caused storm of protest from U.S.
total wartotal war for everyone in the country
unrestricted submarine warfaresinking of all ships, armed and unarmed, that carried supplies to the Allies
Nicholas IIRussian czar
Treaty of Brest-LitovskGermany, Russia - took Russia out of war, 1918
Woodrow WilsonU.S. President when U.S. joined WWI
reasons U.S. joined WWIangered by loss of life and property from German sub campaign, had close ties with Britain and France, Allied propaganda from British, close monetary ties with Allies, wanted to maintain balance of power in Europe
John J. "Black Jack" PershingU.S. general who led American Expeditionary Force (AEF) to defeat Germans
Ferdinand Foch French general
arrmisticetemporary cessation of fighting
November 11, 1918day WWI ended

Section 3

Question Answer
Paris Peace ConferenceJanuary 1919 - leaders there were Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau, David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando
Georges ClemenceauFrench premier, "Old Tiger" - at PPC
David Lloyd GeorgeBritish prime minister - at PPC
Vittorio Orlando Italian prime minister - at PPC
Fourteen PointsWilson's proposed settlement
Treaty of Versaillestreaty between of Allies and Germany - of 5 major treaties ending war, this was most important - territorial provisions, economic provisions, military provisions, the "war guilt" clause
reparationspayment for war damages
war guilt clauseplaced entire blame for the war on Germany
Treaty of St. GermainAustria turned territory over to Italy and recognized independence of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Yugoslavia, pay reparations, limit size of her army, seek Anschluss (both Hungary, Bulgaria signed similar treaties)
Anschlusspolitical unification
Treaty of Sevreesdismantled Ottoman Empire
League of Nationsto guarantee international cooperationa nd to achieve international peace and security
reasons League of Nations failedU.S. did not join, it only had power to recommend action, decisions required unanimous approval, had no armed forces of its own, were hesitant about using force
Charles Dawesamerican banker - let Germany space out payments
Owen YoungAmerican lawyer - reduce Germany's war payments, gave Germany more time to pay
Locarno Pact"German borders shall remain as they are"
disarmamentelimination of weapons or arms
Washington Naval ConferenceBritain, U.S., Japan limit navies
Kellogg-Briand Pactmade war illegal

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