History Ch. 17

rosesarered's version from 2015-05-03 02:00


Question Answer
Congress of Viennain Vienna - nations gathered to decide how to restore order and stability of Europe
Lord Castlereaghforeign minister of Britain
Alexander Iczar of Russia
Prince Klemens von MetternichAustrian minster of foreign affairs - leading figure at congress - famous reactionary
"Age of Metternich"1815 - 1848
reactionarywho wished to reverse the trends begun by French Revolution and restore Europe to its pre-revolution conditions
Charles Maurice de Talleyrandrepresentative of defeated France - shrewd politician
goals of Congress of Viennareestablish political stability, maintain balance of power among leading nations, respond to the revolutionary ideas spread by France
safeguards against FranceFrance had to pay indemnities v, encircled by strong powers,
idemnitiescompensation to other nations for war damages
restoration of legitimate rulers
grants of compensationadditional land given to nations that lost territory in encirclement of France
balance of powerEuropean powers balanced
Quadruple Alliance > Quintuple AllianceAustria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain > added France
Concert of Europe international cooperation of Quint. All. to convene new congress when necessary to resolve problems affecting the peace and stability of Europe
conservatismabsolute monarchy, the aristocracy, and Roman Catholicism
testing alliance systemsuppressed revolts in Italy and Spain -
Monroe Doctrine1823 -
weakness of the congress systemwas successful only when it did not infringe on the special interests of one of the major powers
success of the Greek revolt(ex. of weakness of congress system) defeated Turks and secured Treaty of Adrianople (recognized Greek independence)
nationalismnational liberty
Louis XVIIIascended throne following Napoleon's death -
Charles Xfirm believer in "divine right" of kings - sought to restore absolute rule and privileges of church and nobility
July RevolutionJuly 1830 people of Paris revolted
Louis PhilippeDuke of Orleans, became king after Charles X fled Paris during the July Revolution - "citizen king"
Treaty of Londontreaty signed by leading European nations that recognized Belgium as independent and a perpetually neutral state
revolts of 1848revolts of 1848
June Daysthree days of bloody battle between unemployed workers and the army in Paris
Louis Napoleonnephew of Napoleon Bonaparte who was voted emperor by the French
Franz Josef Inephew of Ferdinand I who had to abdicate because of him
Czar Nicholas Iheaded off uprisings with policy of "Autocracy, Orthodoxy, and Nationalism"
"Autocracy, Orthodoxy, and Nationalism"policy that called for increase czar's control over state, recognized only Russian Orthodox Church, and united diverse national groups
Russificationsame as ^
failure of revoltsfailure of revolts
realpolitik"the politics of reality" - politics of necessity in which whatever means necessary were used to advance a nation's goals
Crimean War1854 - 1856 - Britain, France, Kingdom of Sardinia vs. Russia - first major international conflict since defeat of Napoleon -
Risorgimento"resurgence" - fueled spirit of nationalism
Giuseppe Mazzinistarted patriotic society called Young Italy, determining to fight if necessary for Italian unification
Camillo di Cavourprime minister of Kingdom of Sardinia - primarily responsible for unifying Italy
Giuseppe Garibaldifollower of Mazzini who rose to prominence - founded "Red Shirts" and invaded/conquered Sicily
Victor Emmanuel IIKing of Sardinia, became King of Italy as well - 1st King of Italy
Zollvereintrade union established by German states - favorable results supported movement for political unification
Otto von Bismarkloyal Prussian politician devoted to practice of realpolitik
Austro-Prussian War1866 aka 7 Weeks' War - Prussians gained victory
Franco-Prussian War1870-1871 - cause was throne of Spain - Prussians won
Ems dispatchdispatch changed by Bismark to cause unrest
Dual Monarchyaka Austro-Hungarian Empire, ruled by Franz Josef I
Alexander IIbecame czar after father Nicholas I died - recognized policy of "Autocracy, Orthodoxy, and Nationalism" - abolished serfdom
Chopin"poet of the piano"
ColeridgeKubla Khan
CooperThe Last of the Mohicans
Delacroix"the great romantic"
HugoThe Hunchback of Notre Dame
LisztHungarian Rhapsodies
PoeThe Raven
Tchaikovsky1812 Overture
Turnerorange seascapes
Verdinationalistic opera
Wagnernationalistic opera

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