History Ch. 11 - Imperialism, Africa and India

wokusoye's version from 2016-02-28 23:41


Question Answer
imperialismthe takeover of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, social, and economic life of the people of that nations
nationalismthe belief that people should be loyal to the people with whom they share a culture and history rather than to a king or empire; nationalism increased imperialism because it was thought that the more colonies you had, the better your country was HELP ME
protectoratea country or territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power (form of imperialism)
sphere of influencean area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges (form of imperialism)
paternalisma policy of treating subject people as if they were children, providing for their needs but not giving them rights; used in direct control
the slave tradeAfrican nations would frequently sell each other to Europeans as slaves; outlawed by Britain in 1807; caused Great Trek because Boers needed slaves for their farming
"White Man's Burden" conceptwhite people have the obligation to help "civilize" the african nations and bring them out of savagery, even if they risk their own lives in the process
Social Darwinismthe idea that superior people have wealth and success, non-Europeans are inferior because they have lower technology, and that Europeans should bring progress to other countries; used to justify imperialism
racismthe idea that one race is superior to others
Motives/causes of European imperialismindustrial revolution/economic (provided Europeans with need for more land, new markets, raw materials); nationalism/political (more territory means better empire); racism/Social Darwinism/white man's burden (civilized Europeans have duty to bring progress to others); religious (spread Christianity, end "evil" in Africa)
external things enabling European imperialismMaxim gun (better technology); better travel/communication tech (more control over empire); cure for malaria (allowed Europeans to travel farther than coast);
internal things enabling European imperialismvariety of languages/cultures, ethnic wars (hard to create unity); less technology
Divide & rulemethod of imperialism used in areas of many cultures; accentuate differences between people in order to keep them from uniting, so they're easier to conquer


Question Answer
Africa's borders (before/after late 19th century)before - divided up by many ethnic groups; after - divided up by country, ethnic groups split up/pushed together
Impact of imperialism on Africamainly negative impact, but some positive; pos - less warfare; more sanitation, hospitals, schools -> longer lives, more literacy; more economic expansion -> more technology. neg - africans lost land and freedom; great african death toll from disease, wars, famine; breakdown of traditional culture; unnatural division of African ethnic groups
Asante / Gold Coast / GhanaAsante ruled Ghana since 1700s (traded slaves for firearms) but were over come by British in 1874; British create Gold Coast, a colony, and use direct control; Nkrumah helps lead Ghana to independence in 1957 but becomes a dictator, eventually overcome by democratic gov't
NigeriaBritain took protectorate over it, then colonized it in 1914; used indirect control because of great cultural diversity between the Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Igbo; worked well
D. LivingstoneScottish minister who explored deep into central Africa in 1860s; wanted to help people; later found by H. Stanley in 1871
H. Stanleyliar and oppurtunistic; found David Livingstone in 1871, later returns to the Congo in 1879 and signs unfair treaties with chiefs to give King Leopold II of Belgium control over them
Berlin Conference 1884-85a meeting at which representatives of European nations agreed upon rules for the European colonization of Africa, but AFRICA WAS NOT PRESENT; caused when other countries noticed how Leopold was taking control of Africa and wanted some for themselves; said you can take any colony but you have to be able to control it
King Leopold IIking of Belgium; took over Congo using H. Stanley's unfair treaties; made Congo Free State, which actually oppressed Africans and forced them to grow rubber for his own profit
Congo (Congo Free State)colony created by King Leopold II in Congo; ran by I.A.A., a "humanitarian" organization, but actually oppressed and forced them to farm rubber for the king's profit; used a "secret police" to terrorize people into working, but critics investigated it and the colony was taken away from the king
E. D. Morela critic that investigated Congo Free State; created the Congo Reform Association and wrote 'The Black Man's Burden' to raise awareness of the brutality in Congo Free State
King Lo Bengulaking of Matabeleland and Mashonaland; tricked by Cecil Rhodes into giving up his land
Menelik IIemperor of Ethiopia; played Europeans against each other as they fought for his land, while gaining weapons; declared war on Italy when he realized that their treaty would trick him, and beat Italy in 1896 in the Battle of Adowa
Great Trekthe movement of the Boer farmers in the 1830s northward to escape the British, who had outlawed the slavery they needed; caused fights with the Zulu
Afrikaners, BoersDutch farmers that colonized south Africa
Zulu Wareither a) when British settlers invaded the Zulu empire, a centralized military state led by Shaka, with superior arms in 1816, or b) when the British tried expanding into Zulu territory in 1879
C. Rhodesfounded Rhodesia; believer in social darwinism; worked in the African gold trade and used unfair treaties to gain land for britain
gold & diamonds - significance for South Africacaused interest in South Africa and caused Boer War
Boer War1899-1902 war between British and Dutch Afrikaners; "first total war" incorporating guerilla warfare, concentration camps, scorched-earth policy; caused when gold was discovered in Boer land and British tried to take over; caused union of south africa under britain and apartheid
Apartheida South African policy of complete legal separation of the races, including the banning of all social contacts between blacks and whites


Question Answer
the Mughalsnorthern invaders; muslim rulers but ruled over hindi people; brought harmony to India but fell apart during reign of Shah Jahan
Caste systembrahman (priests), kshatriyas (warriors/landowners), vaisyas (merchants), sudras (laborers/farmers), dalit (untouchables) <-- out of society; caste system reinforced by hindu idea of reincarnation
Hinduism/Islam - some major characteristicshinduism - reincarnation (if you're good you will be reborn as a higher position in society), polytheism; islam - monotheism
Robert Cliveunderhanded general in British East India Company; in Battle of Plassey tricks Indian general into giving up without a fight, allowing him to plunder Bengal and Plassey and increase his own wealth, and make BIECo leading power in India
Battle of Plasseyfight between Britain and India; Indian ruler takes British men prisoner after one of the frequent skirmishes between the BIECo and India; packs them into small room and many die (Black Hole of Calcutta) -> British outrage, Battle of Plassey -> Robert Clive wins, causing BEICo to gain power over India
British East India Company's rule in Indiagained influence in India using port of Surat, 1757 to 1858 - rule of British East India company under private business; so powerful had own army of sepoys (Indian soldiers), forced India to produce agricultural products for trade; rule ended with Sepoy Mutiny
Cawnpore Massacreone of the rebellions of the sepoys during the sepoy mutiny; trapped british women and children during a siege, and when they said they could leave, retrapped them and killed them, dumping the bodies in a well (that movie watched in class); caused outrage in Britain
Sepoy Mutinybritish provide new guns that require sepoys to use cow/pig grease, which is forbidden for hindus and muslims -> when they are forced to use it, rebellions occur ->british outrage and violence as revenge, direct control of British government
Nana Sahibleader of Cawnpore Massacre
Direct British Gov't rule in Indiabegan with Sepoy Mutiny; called the Raj; lasted from 1858 to 1947; queen rules over India; brought technology, education, english to India, but few british were in charge of large indian pop.
the RajBritish rule over India from 1757 to 1947
"jewel in the crown"refers to how England saw India as the most valuable of all its colonies - large potential market for British goods, major supplier of raw materials and agricultural products, large tax revenue
lagaan"land tax" collected by British to "protect" princely states; said that they would protect a state from another state, but did this to everyone so they were just making money; caused famine b/c paid in grain -> villagers have none for themselves
Rowlatt ActsBritish law passed in 1919; allowed gov't to jail protesters without trial, caused when Indian troops returning from helping Britain in WWI expected independence but didn't receive it, and violently rebelled; Rowlatt Acts caused Amritsar Massacre
Amritsar Massacrepeaceful gathering of Indians protesting Rowlatt Acts (1919), but massacred by British who had apparently banned public meetings; caused outrage in India and call for independence
cloth (British in India)British cloth put Indian homespun cloth out of business and helped British wealth; Gandhi's boycott caused decrease in British cloth sale
salt tax and Salt Marchsalt tax - Indians can only buy salt from gov't with extra tax -> Gandhi organizes Salt March to protest this, walks w/followers to coast and peacefully protest by making own salt there
Gandhi's main views (& his career in S. Africa)educated as lawyer in London, lived in S. Africa and experienced racism against black people ->fought racism; came back to India and fought racism in all forms; developed idea of civil disobedience (deliberate and public refusal to obey an unjust law) and supported peace between hindus and muslims
Indian National Congressnational political party claiming to represent all india, but mainly Hindu; led by J. Nehru
J. Nehruleader of INC, 1st Indian prime minister; supported democracy, unity, modernization; moved India forward
M. Jinnahleader of Muslim League, supported division of Hindu and Muslim
Muslim Leaguepolitical party founded in 1906 in India to protect Muslim interests; supported partition (division of India into 2 nations) so that they wouldn't have Hindu rule
Imperialism's impact on Indiagood and bad; british railroads gave India modern economy and unity, brought transportation, communication, irrigation and modernized India; increased public health, education, and decreased crime and local warfare; however, British held all economic and political power, Indian industry was restricted, cash crops caused less self sufficiency, food shortages, and famine, and racism posed a threat to tradition in India
Bangladeshpartition and independence of India (Aug. 15, 1947) breaks india into hindu india and muslim pakistan (causes massacres when muslims and hindus try to move into the "right" country and are killed by hostile religion); pakistan is divided into east and west, very different, and is separated by India; EAST pakistan secedes and becomes bangladesh, helped by india

The British

Question Answer
Supporters of imperialismBenjamin Disraeli, Tories, Queen Victoria, Cecil Rhodes, Rudyard Kipling
Opponents of imperialismLivingstone, William Gladstone, Whigs
Queen Victoriaqueen of England; swayed to support of imperialism by Benjamin Disraeli
R. Kiplingwrote The White Man's Burden; imperialist, also wrote The Jungle Book
W. Gladstoneleader of the Whig party in England; liberal, opposed idea of imperialism; felt guilty about moral wrongness of imperialism and supported wealth though commerce, not conquest
B. Disraelileader of Tories in England; conservative, supported imperialism; wanted to expand britain