Julius Caesar Civil War (49-45) Caesar bring them peace and stability which is why they are okay with him being dictator
Pompey During civil war Pompey was fored into exile and assassinated in 48 BC
Marc Antony Supporter of Caesar. (Second Triumvirate 43-33 B.C.)Against Marcus Lepidus and Augustus for power
Gaius Octavian A constitutional monarchy- all the institution of the republic still exist however, Augustus has the true power Saw his uncles weakness when he flaunted his power and wanted to be dictator- Augustus does not do this but his successor will
Parthian Empire Antony and Cleopatra won the war against Parthian. Antony gave away some land to Egypt– committed treason
Cleopatra Marc Antony's mistress. Both commit suicide in 30 BC
Battle of Actium Accusations of Treason Battle of Actium – 31 B.C.
Pax Romana High of Rome, much like the classical period in Greece. 30 BC- Power of Augustus, death of Cleopatra and fall of Egypt
Livy 142 books; called history of Rome. One of the most significant sources that we have on Rome.
Ovid Poet. Very explicit of love and sexual. Opposite of the moral standards of Augustus
Tiberius Sejanus (14-37 A.D.) adopted son of Caesar Augustus-- Maintains the peace- Flaunt powers, not well liked. Little mourning over his death
Caligula (37-41 A.D.) Made Emperor by Praetorian Guard Cruel tyrant Demanded to be worshiped. Appointed a horse
Claudius (41-54) Paranoid figure. Stuttering problem, physically not strong person. But is a scholar. Under Claudius Rome goes back to Britain. Age of Expansion
Agrippina Fourth wife or Claudius, poisoned him for Nero
Nero (54-68) Fire in Rome 64,
Vespasian (69-79) first middle class Emperor, taxes everything. died naturally. Built Colesseum
Titus (79-81) 70 AD destroys Jerusalem, except Wailing Wall. 2months after being Emperor Vesuvius erupts
“Five Good Emperors” Began with Nerva, who was chosen by Senate
Trajan (98-117) first non-Italian (Spain). Expanded Empire to its max. 2nd good emperor
Hadrian (117-138) Wall (122)proves that Rome will stop expanding
Marcus Aurelius Choose the successor to be his son- no competent to be Emperor- not welcome by senate Commodus-- like Nero– could not rule but enjoyed sports and the arts
Torah First 5 books of Judaism
Pharisees 2nd century BC- religious leaders in Judaism. Evoles into Rabbinic Judaism
Essenes radical groups. What to get away from social corruption. Dead Sea Scrolls possibly hidden be Esseness who were threated by Roman
Apostle Paul Preaches to Gentile Communities. Arrested during the age of Nero. Beheaded 64-66
The Patriarchates Alexandria, Jerusalem, Damascus, Rome, Constantinople. Organic growth (w/o force)
Petrine Theory Irenaeus tries to justifies Rome as the head of the church
Council of Nicaea (325 AD) affirmed godhead and manhood of Christ
Jerome (420 AD) translate the bible and consolidate the bible into Latin– The Vulgate is now the accepted text for the western world.
St. Augustine (430 AD) Bishop of Hippo. Wrote City of God. First time it was sacked by a foreign force
“Soldier Emperors” Between 217-284 there were 26 emperors and over fifty who claimed to be emperor.
Diocletian (284-305) Divided empire in two. Diocletian- east, Maximian- west. Demads to be worshipped. Empire wide Christian persecution. Loss of social mobility, decline in arts and education
Constantinople (306-337) Civil War- Battle of Milvian Bridge. Edict of Milan (stop christian persecution). Council of Nicaea.
Attila the Hun (434-453) March on Rome in 451. Pope Leo I stops it.
Pope Leo I Pope officially making the decisions, not the emperor--- Pope negotiated with Attila to stop the attack therefore the church/pope saved Rome
Alaric the Visigoth (410) Alaric the Visigoth first time an outside invader attacked Rome (been 800 years). Under rule of Theodocius (who divides empire, Christianity official religion in 380)
Odoacer (476) Odoacer removed Romulus Augustus (Boy emperor)- nobody replaces him- termed the year Rome fell.
Romulus Augustus Last western Roman emperor
Justinian (527-565) Eastern Emperor. Tried to unite Roman Empire. Marries Theodore, makes empress/equal power. Writes Codex (common law)
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