HIST 211 Exam 1

swimmergirl171994's version from 2015-09-24 20:56

Section 1

Question Answer
Prerequisites for Civilization1. Agricultural Revolution 2. Domestication of Animals 3. Permanent Settlement 4. Pottery 5. Tool Making
Distinguish between history/prehistoryperiod of human existence before the availability of those written records. Earliest record tended to be records of agricultural production
SumeriansMuch is unknown due to lack of understanding the language. It was a City-State. Left technological impacts of rest of Mesopotamia- brought chariots, beer, sexagesimal counting system
AnuSky God- Sexagesimal, daughter (Ishtar) is fertility goddess. Found in the Epic of Gilgamesh
ZigguratsEach city-state was headed by a priest. It was their job to praise the gods
LugalzaggisiFirst to try and conquer city-states (2350BC)
Enuma ElishMeans When on High. Story about Marduk saving the Gods from a revolt. The two evil leaders (Kingu and Tiamet) are killed, Tiamet's body created the sky and the earth ,while Kingu's blood created man.
Sargon I
Ur-NammuFirst Law Giver, Ur III Dynasty (2060 BC)
First Babylonian DynastyAmorites (1830-1530 BC)
Hammurabi6th king of the Babylonian dynasty (1700 BC). He created Marduk to be the national God, developed canals, roads an irrigation systems. Code of Hammurabi
ShamashGod of Justice, Creator of Laws
MardukGod of War. Babylonian city state god. Then promoted to national god

Section 2

Question Answer
Amenhotep IV(1379-1362 BC) Rebel Pharaoh, Put monotheism in place. Detested by his people, they tried to erase his name from history, which was true until the discovery of Tel-el-Amarna
The pyramids (2800-2500 BC) Third and fourth Dynasties. Means centralized government, time of peace, heavily taxed. (first intermediate period) exhausted resources. Began to sell power away (de-centralizes the government)
The HyksosSecond Intermediate Period, semitic, ruled for 110 years
18th Dynasty Began after the Hyksos
The Story of Sinuhe(1960 BC). Man living in danger, moves to Asia Minor where he generates wealth. Leaves it behind to venture back to Egypt.
Tutankhamen (1366-1357) Married into Pharoahship, Foudn in the Valley of Kings and Queens (1922 AD)
Book of the DeadDiscusses on how to trick the Gods by weighting the heart in a certain way which changes its weight
Osiris God of the Dead and underworld
King Menes(3100 BC)Built palaces, est. trade with Canaans. Ptah as national god

Section 3

Question Answer
The Indus ValleyFocused around the Indus River. Mountain ranges provided timber, fur, minerals, gold, tin and silver
Harappa(2400 BC) foundation is what is left. Possible storage bins, great halls, large building
Aryan Invasion(1500-1200 BC) Indo-Europeans. Assimilated with Indians, Brought beliefs and autocratic system
AgniGod of Fire to the Aryans. Believed that Angi was hungry so animal sacrifices rituals were done in the form of burning
The Caste SystemBrahmins (priest), Kshatriyas (warrior, aristocrats), Vaishas (Aryans served higher ups) Shurdras (conquered people) Aryans used religion to conquer India (manifest destiny)
The Bhagavad GitaPractical self-help guide to life. Lack of knowledge is sin
The VedasWisdom literature. Belief that man is good, evil is a source from the outside
UpanishadsStresses self-realization and rebirth. Enforces the caste system
Ramayana(500 BC) story of Rama who was depicted of having the ideals of a Aryan culture- loyal, faithful, truth speaking and affectionate. Shows that Aryans should be rulers

Section 4

Question Answer
Shang DynastyFirst dynasty of historical evidence. Unified norther china by force
Filial Pietyconcept that believes in emphasis devotion to the family. As children it is reasonability to take care of their parents. Almost a familial worship.
Zhou Dynasty(1000 BC) Shang family lost morality, The Zhou battled for leadership. Used Nepotism- or putting family members into government positions
Confucius(551 BC) Nothing written about him until 400 years after his death. Very Nostalgic thinker, belived in rituals and blamed leaders for neglecting old Zhou rituals
DaoismFounder Lao-Zi. Forget about truth, merely created unhappiness. Pursuit of serenity and modest living. Taosit have no ambition therefore he can never fail. He won never fails, always succeeds.
Qin Dynasty(338 BC) Encouraged trade an work, beginning of imperial China
Terra Cotta ArmyBuilt for first Qin ruler, shows strength and power. Discovered in 1974