HIM 110 ch.1 Intro to disease

krismina's version from 2018-02-25 00:02

Section 1

Question Answer
Health- condition in which the human body performs its vital functions normally
- depends on homeostasis
Homeostasis- stable internal conditions under fluctuating environmental conditions
- ex. maintain temperature, pH, blood composition, and fluid levels within a precise range
Disease- significant disturbance in the homeostasis of the body
- deviation from normal structure or function in the body that interrupts or modifies the performance of vital functions
Pathology- study of disease, especially the structural and functional changes associated with disease
- study of causes, mechanisms, signs and symptoms, treatments, and prevention
Pathologista physician who studies and interprets the changes caused by disease
Sign1. evidence of disease observed on physical examination
2. ex. abnormal pulse or respiratory rate, fever, and sweating
Symptom1. indications of disease reported by the patient
2. ex. pain, dizziness, and itching
Syndromeabnormal structure or function characterized by a group of signs and symptoms that usually occur together ex. AIDS, Down Syndrome
Disorderfunctional abnormally not necessarily linked to a specific cause or physical abnormality ex. ADHD, Hemorhoids
Diagnosis- process of identifying a disease or disorder
- relies on results of lab tests that analyze the composition of urine, blood, throat swabs, stool, sputum, and other patient samples

Section 2

Question Answer
A physical exam includes1. inspection
2. palpation
3. auscultation
4. percussion
5. vital signs
Inspectionvisual exam of the external surface of the body, its movements, and posture for abnormalities or evidence of disease
Palpationfeeling the body with fingers or hands, allows examination of the size, consistency, texture, location, and tenderness of an organ or body part
Auscultationlisting to the lungs, heart, and intestines, allows evaluation of the frequency, intensity, duration, number, and quality of sounds originating in the body
Percussionproducing sounds by tapping on specific areas of the body with fingers, hands, or a small instrument, allows evaluation of the size, consistency, and borders of the body organs, and the presence or absence of fluid in body areas
Vital signsmeasures of various physiological statistics in order to assess the most basic body functions
Biopsy- surgical removal and analysis of tissue samples, yields information about changes at the cellular level
- can reveal valuable information about tumors

Section 3

Question Answer
List diagnostic procedures allow physicians to visualize the structure or function of internal organs- electrocardiography
- radiography
- computed tomography (CT)
- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- ultrasound
- nuclear medicine
Electrocardiographyreads the heart's electrical impulses
Radiographyx-rays to visualize internal structures
Computed tomography (CT) - scan uses computers and x-rays to create three-dimensional images of internal structures
- looking for blood clots
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)analyzes tissue responses to a strong magnetic field to create images of internal structures
Ultrasound analyzes the interaction of low-frequency sound waves with tissues to create moving images of internal organs
Nuclear medicineradioactive materials to create contrast in the body and help form images of the structure and function of organs
Prognosis- predicted course and outcome
- may state the chances for complete recovery, predict the permanent loss of function, or give probability of survival

Section 4

Question Answer
Acute disease- sudden onset and short duration
- ex. flu, measles, & cold
Terminal diseasedisease that will end in death
Chronic diseaseslow, less severe onset and a long duration of months or years
- ex. heart disease, cancer, stroke, diabetes, & arthritis
Remissionsome disease enter a period during which its signs and symptoms subside or disappear
Exacerbationsigns and symptoms may grow more severe
Relapsereturn of a disease weeks or months after its apparent cure
Complicationrelated disease or other abnormal state that develops in a person already suffering from a disease
Sequela- aftermath of a particular disease
- ex. a sequela of rheumatic fever is permanent damage to the heart
-ex. sequela of polio is paraysis

Section 5

Question Answer
Mortalitynumber of deaths that occur among people with a certain disease
Morbiditynumber of cases of a disease in a population
Incidencerate of occurrence of new cases of a particular disease in a population being studied
Prevalence percentage of a population that is affected with a particular disease at a given time
Epidemiologystudy of the occurrence, transmission, distribution, and control of disease
Etiologyimportant aspect of any disease is its origin or cause
Pathogenesishow the cause of a disease leads to anatomical and physiological changes in the body that ultimately results in the disease
Idiopathiccause of the disease is not known

Section 6

Question Answer
List the chief causes of diseases1. hereditary
2. congenital
3. degenerative
4. inflammatory, autoimmune, & allergic
5. neoplastic
6. metabolic
7. traumatic
8. nutritional
Hereditary1. abnormality in an individual's genes or chromosomes
2. ex. hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis
Congenital1. exist at or date from birth; acquired thru hereditary or acquired during development in the uterus
2. ex. Tetralogy of Fallot (heart abnormality)
Degenerative1. function or structure of the affected tissues or organs progressively deteriorates over time
2. ex. arteriosclerosis, osteoarthristis, Alzheimer's disease
Inflammatory, autoimmune, & allergic1. result of abnormal immune function; infectious diseases are caused by pathogens such as bacteria & viruses
2. ex. asthma, systemic lupus erythematosus, hay fever
Neoplastic1. result from abnormal growth that leads to the formation of tumors
2. ex. lung cancer, malignant melanoma, breast cancer
Metabolic1. disruption of normal metabolism, the process of converting food to energy on a cellular level
2. ex. diabetes, hypothyroidism, gigantism
Traumatic1. physical or chemical injury
2. ex. burns, frostbite, bone fractures
Nutritional1. over or under consumption of nutrients
2. ex. iron-deficiency anemia, scurvy, obesity