Higher Order and Limbic System

imissyou419's version from 2016-10-19 22:00

Section 1

Question Answer
Tactile AgnosiaDamage to somatosensory association area, inability to understand somatosensory stimuli, primary somatosensory cortex intact
Visual AgnosiaDamage to visual association area, inability to understand visual stimuli, primary visual cortex intact
Auditory AgnosiaDamage to auditory association cortex so inability to understand visual stimuli, primary visual cortex in tact
Ideomotor ApraxiaDamage to ideomotor; difficulty in initiating movements based on memory (e.g. combing your hair)
Kinetic apraxiaDamage to primary motor cortex; difficulty in making precise movements of the limbs
Gait apraxiaDamage to premotor cortex; difficulty in making walking or running movements
AphoniaDamage to primary motor cortex; inability to produce voice
Executive Aphasiaalso known as expressive or Broca's aphasia; speech is difficult to initiate and non-fluent
Receptive AphasiaAlso known as Wernicke's aphasia; language comprehension is lost even though speech may sound relatively normal (fluent) but meaningless

Section 2

Question Answer
Dorsal Streamwhere pathway; spatial relationship among objects
Ventral streamwhat pathway; objects, words, faces
Lesion at right optic nerveLose information in both pimary visual cortexes (lose right eye)
Lesion at optic chiasmtunnel vision
Lesion at right optic tractlose right visual hemi-field
Left and right optic tract termination siteLGN which then project to primary visual cortex

Section 3

Question Answer
Limbic system includescingulate gyrus, hippocampal formation, entorhinal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus
Hippocampus functionretention of information in short-term memory and its transfer into long-term memory (cerebral cortex) and regulation of emotional responsiveness
Amygdala functionemotional interpretation of external sensory information (fear, irritability, anger) and internal states (visceral responses related to emotional responses) mediated through hypothalamus, autonomic brain stem nuclei
Stria terminalisconnect amygdala to diencephalon (anterior hypothalamus)
Entorhinal cortexmakes up bulk of temporal lobe
Fornixconnect hippocampus to hypothalamus/mammillary body to anterior nuclei of thalamus