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High Yield Pharm

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vecezuzu's version from 2017-02-22 20:37

Anti-histamines (H1 Blockers)

Question Answer
DiphenhydramineFirst generation anti-histamine
DimenhydrinateFirst generation anti-histamine
ChlorpheniramineFirst generation anti-histamine
HydroxyzineFirst generation anti-histamine
PromethazineFirst generation anti-histamine
LoratadineSecond generation anti-histamine
FexofenadineSecond generation anti-histamine
DesloratadineSecond generation anti-histamine
CetirizineSecond generation anti-histamine
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Anti-Depressants/Atypical Anti-Depressants

Question Answer
FluoxetineSSRI
ParoxetineSSRI
SertralineSSRI
CitalopramSSRI
VenlafaxineSNRI
DesvenlafaxineSNRI
DuloxetineSNRI
LevomilnacipranSNRI
MilnacipramSNRI
AmitriptylineTCA
NortriptylineTCA
ImipramineTCA
DesipramineTCA
ClomipramineTCA
DoxepinTCA
AmoxapineTCA
TranylcypromineMAOI
PhenelzineMAOI
IsocarboxazidMAOI
SelegilineMAO-B Inhibitor
BupropionAtypical - increases NE and DA via unknown mech.
MirtazapineAtypical - alpha-2 antagonist, 5-HT2/3 antagonist, H1 antagonist
TrazodoneAtypical - 5-HT2 antagonist, alpha-1 antagonist, H1 antagonist, weakly inhibits 5-HT reuptake
VareniclineAtypical - Nicotinic ACh receptor partial agonist
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Anti-psychotics/Atypical Anti-psychotics

Question Answer
HaloperidolD2 antagonist, high potency
TrifluoperazineD2 antagonist, high potency
FluphenazineD2 antagonist, high potency
ThioridazineD2 antagonist, low potency
ChlorpromazineD2 antagonist, low potency
AripiprazoleAtypical - D2 partial agonist
AsenapineAtypical - not completely understood - mostly D2 antagonist
ClozapineAtypical - not completely understood - mostly D2 antagonist
IloperidoneAtypical - not completely understood - mostly D2 antagonist
LurasidoneAtypical - not completely understood - mostly D2 antagonist
OlanzapineAtypical - not completely understood - mostly D2 antagonist
PaliperidoneAtypical - not completely understood - mostly D2 antagonist
QuetiapineAtypical - not completely understood - mostly D2 antagonist
RisperidoneAtypical - not completely understood - mostly D2 antagonist
ZiprasidoneAtypical - not completely understood - mostly D2 antagonist
Lithiumnot completely understood - maybe related to inhibition of phosphoinositol cascade
Buspironestimulates 5-HT1a receptors (partial agonist)
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Opioids

Question Answer
Morphineopioid receptor agonist
Fentanylopioid receptor agonist
Codeineopioid receptor agonist
Loperamideopioid receptor agonist (tx diarrhea)
Methadoneopioid receptor agonist (tx heroin addicts)
Meperidineopioid receptor agonist (mydriasis)
Dextromethorphanopioid receptor agonist (antitussive)
Diphenoxylateopioid receptor agonist (tx diarrhea)
Pentazocinek opioid agonist, mu opioid antagonist
Butorphanolk opioid agonist, mu opioid partial agonist
Tramadolweak opioid agonist, blocks 5-HT/NE reuptake
Buprenorphinepartial mu opioid agonist
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Important drug toxicity reversals

Question Answer
dantrolenemalignant hyperthermia, malignant neuroleptic syndrome (ryanodine Ca blocker)
cyproheptadineserotonin syndrome (5-HT antagonist)
naloxoneopioids
flumazenilbenzodiazepines
NaHCO3TCAs, salicylates
protamine sulfateheparin
fresh frozen plasma/vit kwarfarin
AChE inhibitors/organophosphatesatropine, pralidoxime
anti-muscarinics/cholinergicsphyostigmine
acetaminophenN-acetylcysteine
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Insulin Preparations

Question Answer
LisproRapid acting
AspartRapid acting
GlulisineRapid acting
Regular insulinShort acting
NPHIntermediate acting
DetemirLonger acting
GlargineLongest acting
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Sulfonylureas

Question Answer
ChlorpropamideSulfonylurea - 1st gen - close K channel in Beta cell membrane, increases insulin release
TolbutamideSulfonylurea - 1st gen - close K channel in Beta cell membrane, increases insulin release
GlimepirideSulfonylurea - 2nd gen - close K channel in Beta cell membrane, increases insulin release, long acting
GlipizideSulfonylurea - 2nd gen - close K channel in Beta cell membrane, increases insulin release, short acting
GlyburideSulfonylurea - 2nd gen - close K channel in Beta cell membrane, increases insulin release, long acting
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Other hypoglycemic drugs

Question Answer
MetforminBiguanide - decrease gluconeogenesis, increase glycolysis, increase peripheral glucose uptake
PioglitazoneGlitazone/Thiazolidinediones - binds PPAR-y nuclear transcription factor, increases insulin sensitivity
RosiglitazoneGlitazone/Thiazolidinediones - binds PPAR-y nuclear transcription factor, increases insulin sensitivity
NateglinideMeglitinide - binds different site than Sulfonylureas on K channel, increases postprandial insulin release
RepaglinideMeglitinide - binds different site than Sulfonylureas on K channel, increases postprandial insulin release
ExenatideGLP-1 analog
LiraglutideGLP-1 analog
LinagliptinDPP-4 inhibitor (enzyme normally deactivates GLP-1)
SaxagliptinDPP-4 inhibitor (enzyme normally deactivates GLP-1)
SitagliptinDPP-4 inhibitor (enzyme normally deactivates GLP-1)
PramlintideAmylin analog (decreases gastric emptying/glucagon)
CanagliflozinSGLT-2 inhibitor
DapagliflozinSGLT-2 inhibitor
EmpagliflozinSGLT-2 inhibitor
Acarbosealpha-glucosidase inhibitor (at brush border - delayed carb hydrolysis and glucose absorption)
Miglitolalpha-glucosidase inhibitor (at brush border - delayed carb hydrolysis and glucose absorption)
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Vitamins

Question Answer
Vitamin ARetinol
B1Thiamine (TPP)
B2Riboflavin (FAD)
B3Niacin (NAD)
B5Pantothenic acid (CoA)
B6Pyridoxine (PLP)
B7Biotin
B9Folate
B12Cobalamin
Vitamin CAscorbic acid
Vitamin ETocopherol, Tocotrienol
Vitamin KPhytomenadione, Phylloquinone, Phytonadione
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Amino Acid Derivatives

Question Answer
PhenylalanineTyrosine (BH4), DOPA (BH4) Melanin, Dopamine (B6), Norepinephrine (VitaminC), Epinephrine (SAM)
TryptophanNiacin(B2,B6), Serotonin (BH4,B6), Melatonin
HistidineHistamine (B6)
GlycinePorphyrin (B6), Heme
GlutamateGABA (B6), Glutathione
ArginineCreatine, Urea, NO (BH4)
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Apolipoproteins

Question Answer
EMediates remnant uptake
A-IActivates LCAT
C-IILPL cofactor
B-48Mediates chylomicron secretion
B-100Binds LDL receptor (only LDL, all others use Apo E to bind)
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Effects of strokes

Question Answer
MCAcontralateral paralysis and sensory loss (UE and face), aphasia (if left hemisphere), hemineglect (if right hemisphere)
ACAcontralateral paralysis and sensory loss (LE)
Lenticulostriate arterycontralateral paralysis and/or sensory loss (face and body)
ASAcontralateral paralysis (UE and LE), decreased contralateral proprioception, ipsilateral hypoglossal dysfunction
PICAnucleus ambiguus effects - dysphagia, hoarseness, decreased gag, Horner's, decreased pain and temp from ipsilateral face
AICAfacial nucleus effects - paralysis of face, decrease lacrimation, taste from ant. 2/3, ipsilateral pain and temp of face, decreased contralateral pain and temp of body
Basilar arterylocked in syndrome - quadriplegia, loss of voluntary facial, mouth, and tongue movements, preserved consciousness
PCAcontralateral hemianopia with macular sparing
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Locations of CN nuclei

Question Answer
MidbrainCN III, IV, pretectal nucleus, edinger-westphal nuclei
PonsCN V, VI, VII, VIII
MedullaCN IX, X, XII
Spinal cordCN XI
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Lymph Drainage

Question Answer
Ovaries/testespara-aortic nodes
Body of uterus/cervix/superior bladderexternal iliac nodes
Prostate/cervix/corpus cavernosum/proximal vagina/rectum (above pectinate)internal iliac nodes
Distal vagina/vulva/scrotum/distal anus (below pectinate)superficial inguinal nodes
Glans penisdeep inguinal nodes
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Dermatologic micro terms

Question Answer
hyperkeratosisincrease thickness of s. corneum
parakeratosishyperkeratosis with retention of nuclei in s. corneum
hypergranulosisincrease thickness of granulosum
spongiosisepidermal accumulation of edematous fluid in intercellular spaces
acantholysisseparation of epidermal cells
acanthosisepidermal hyperplasia (increase in spinosum)
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