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Hi Yield 95.0-99.0

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mhewett's version from 2016-07-18 00:49

Section 95 Upper GI Tract

What anatomic landmark signifies the end of the upper GI tract? Ligament of Treitz
What three glands secrete saliva? (1) Parotide (2) Subligual (3) Submandibular
What component of saliva initiates the digestion of starch? Lubricates food? Alpha-amylase; Mucins
What cells in the stomach produce pepsinogen? In what part of the stomach would you expect to find these cells? Chief cells; Fundus, Corpus
What cells in the stomach produce HCl and intrinsic factor? In what part of the stomach would you expect to find these cells? Parietal cells; Fundus
What are the three major stimulators of the parietal cells in the stomach lumen? (1) Gastrin (2) Histamine (3) Acetylcholine
What cells in the stomach produce mucus? In what part of the stomach would you expect to find these cells? Mucus cells; Antrum, Corpus, Fundus
Do prostaglandins increase or decrease HCl secretion by parietal cells? Mucus production by mucus cells? Decrease; Increase
What cells in the stomach produce gastrin? In what part of the stomach would you expect to find these cells? G cells; Antrum

Section 96 GI Hormones and Absorption

What are the three primary effects of gastrin? (1) Stimulates parietal cell secretion (2) Decreases stomach emptying (3) Increases stomach motility
What is the primary role of secretin? Stimulates bicarbonate secretion by pancreas
What are the two primary effects of cholecystokinin? (1) Stimulates pancreatic exocrine activity (2) Stimulates gallbladder contractions
What are the two primary effects of gastric inhibitory protein (GIP)? (1) Stimulates insulin secretion (2) Inhibits parietal cell secretion
What are the four primary effects of somatostatin? (1) Inhibits parietal cell secretion (2) Inhibits pancreatic exocrine activity (3) Inhibits pancreatic endocrine activity (4) Inhibits GH and TH synthesis
What are the three primary effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)? (1) Smooth muscle relaxation (2) Inhibits gastric acid secretion (3) Stimulates bicarbonate secretion by pancreas
What type of cells secrete secretin? Cholecystokinin? Somatostatin? Where would you find each of these cells? S cells (duodenum); I cells (duodenum, jejunum); Delta cells (endocrine pancreas)
What part of the GI tract absorbs bile salts? Terminal ileum
What part of the GI tract absorbs vitamin 12? Terminal ileum
What reabsorbs more water, the small intestine or colon? Small intestine
In what part of the GI tract is sodium absorption mostly via co-transport, as a result of active uptake of sugars and amino acids? Jejunum
In what part of the GI tract is sodium absorbed? Jejunum, Ileum, Colon
In what part of the GI tract is bicarbonate absorbed? Jejunum, Ileum
In what part of the GI tract is potassium absorbed? Jejunum, Ileum
What part of the GI tract absorbs the most iron? Duodenum, Proximal jejunum
What molecule transports iron through the blood and in all interstitial spaces? Transferrin
What three substances known to increase the absorption of iron? (1) Vitamin C (2) Alcohol (3) Fructose
What three substances known to decrease the absorption of iron? (1) Dietary fiber (2) Calcium (3) Tea/Coffee
What part of the GI tract absorbs carbohydrates and amino acids? Duodenum, Jejunum
What three substances known to decrease the absorption of iron? (1) Dietary fiber (2) Calcium (3) Tea/Coffee
What three substances known to increase the absorption of calcium? (1) Parathyroid hormone (2) Growth hormone (3) Insulin
What three substances known to decrease the absorption of iron? (1) Cortisol (2) Thyroxine (3) Glucagon

Section 97 Adrenal Hormones, Addison's Disease

What is the primary effect of adrenal gland stimulation by ACTH? Cortisol production and release
What region of the adrenal cortex synthesizes testosterone? Aldosterone? Cortisol? Zona reticularis; Zona glomerulosa; Zona fasciculata
What hormone, released by the hypothalamus, stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete ACTH? Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
What is the most potent stimulus to the hypothalamus to produce corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)? Sympathetic nervous system
What are the two most important factors in determining aldosterone manufacture? (1) Potassium (2) Angiotensin II
Does the sympathetic nervous system normally cause stimulation or inhibition to the hypothalamus? What is the exception? Inhibition; Stimulates hypothalamus to secrete corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
What hormone is termed the "stress hormone"? Cortisol
What is the difference between Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome? Cushing's disease is any condition that causes an increased production of ACTH; Cushing's syndrome is due to excess cortisol
How does Addison's disease affect levels of aldosterone, potassium, sodium, ACTH, and melanin? Low aldosterone, High potassium, Low sodium, High ACTH, High melanin
What condition is marked by an over production of aldosterone by the adrenal gland? What about a decreased production of aldosterone? Conn's syndrome; Addison's disease

Section 98.0 Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland

What are the six hormones released by the anterior pituitary gland? What is the most common cause of excess anterior pituitary gland hormones? (1) FSH (2) LH (3) ACTH (4) TSH (5) Prolactin (6) GH; Pituitary adenoma
Which of the anterior pituitary hormones works to stimulate the adrenal cortex? Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Which of the anterior pituitary hormones is produced by somatotropes? Growth hormone (GH)
What are the two hormones released from the posterior pituitary gland? (1) Oxytocin (2) Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
True or False: The posterior pituitary gland does not produce hormones, but instead secretes hormones made by the hypothalamus. True
What hormone deficiency is associated diabetes insipidus? Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)

Section 98.1.0 Erection and Erectile Dysfunction

What is the term for vascular filling of the penile cavernous bodies, creating an erection? Tumescence
What are the three factors that mediate smooth muscle contraction in the penis, promoting flaccidity? (1) Norepinephrine (2) Endothelin-1 (3) Angiotensin II
What are the three factors that mediate smooth muscle relaxation in the penis, promoting erection? (1) Acetylcholine (ACh) (2) Nitric oxide (3) ATP
What amino acid is used to produce nitric oxide? What enzyme catalyzes this reaction? Arginine; Nitric oxide synthase
Most erectile dysfunction medications increase _____, which is partcularly important gaining and maintaining an erection. Nitric oxide
What enzyme is inhibited by most erectile dysfunction medications? Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5)
In terms of the autonomic nervous system, the _____ nervous system promotes erection, while the _____ nervous system stimulates ejaculation. Parasympathetic; Sympathetic
In males, what type of cells maintain spermatogenesis? Produces testosterone? Sertoli cells; Leydig cells
In males FSH stimulates _____ cells, while LH stimulates _____ cells Sertoli cells; Leydig cells

Section 98.2-98.3 The Female

What hormone, released for the hypothalamus, stimulates the anterior pituitary hormone to release FSH and LH? GnRH
Which of the anterior pituitary hormones are gonadotropes? Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Which of the pituitary hormones stimulates milk production? Milk release? Are they associated with the anterior or posterior pituitary gland? Prolactin (anterior pituitary), Oxytocin (posterior pituitary)
What are the three primary effects of progesterone in a female? (1) Vasodilation (2) Smooth muscle relaxation (3) Glandular production in the endometrium
In females, GnRH release is inhibited by _____ and _____. Estrogen, Progesterone
In females, what hormone is responsible for the development and maintenance of the corpus luteum in the ovary? LH
In females, what hormone is responsible for the development of follicles in the ovary? FSH
In what phase of the menstrual cycle is progesterone highest? Estrogen highest? Luteal phase; Follicular phase
At about what day in the menstrual cycle does the anterior pituitary gland produce a surge of LH? Day 12
In a normal menstrual cycle, how many hours after the LH surge does ovulation occur? 16 hours
The granulosa cells of the corpus luteum produce large quantities of _____. Progesterone
In a normal menstrual cycle, how many days following the LH surge does the corpus luteum degenerate? 12 days
In a normal menstrual cycle, how many days after the degeneration of the corpus luteum does menstruation begin? 2 days
What are the three primary functions of estrogen? (1) Stimulates growth/development of the uterus, female sex organs, and breasts (2) Stimulates osteoblasts to build bone (3) Causes the proliferation of endometrial cells
What hormone promotes the secretory changes in the endometrium during the latter half of the menstrual cycle? Progesterone
What hormone is responsible for constipation and reflux during pregnancy? Progesterone
During a normal menstrual cycle, elevated levels of _____ cause endometrial cell proliferation. Estrogen
Describe the levels of LH and FSH during puberty? Both FSH and LH are high
Describe the levels of LH and FSH during menopause? Both FSH and LH are high, but FSH is two times or more higher than LH
Describe the levels of LH and FSH during polycystic ovarian syndrome? LH is high, but FSH is low.
Where does fertilization take place? Fallopian tube (oviduct)
How many days after fertilization does blastocyst to begin to invade and attach to the endometrium? 7 days
What hormone prevents the degeneration of the corpus letum following fertlization? What type of cells secrete it? hCG; Trophoblast cells
In the final weeks of pregnancy, just prior to delivery, the levels of _____ sruge, creating a very contractile uterus. Estrogen
During labor, levels of _____ rise sharply, causing strong uterine contractions. Oxytocin
What is the term used to decribe fetal loss before 20 weeks of gestation? Spontaneous abortion
What are the five types of spontaneous abortion? Which is not associated with fetal demise? (1) Threatened (2) Inevitable (3) Complete (4) Incomplete (5) Missed; Threatened
Term delivery is between _____ and _____ weeks of gestation. 37-41 weeks

Section 98.4 Thyroid Function

Which thyroid hormone is more biologically active, T3 or T4? T3
Regardless of TSH stimulation, high levels of _____ are known to inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis, resulting in decreased thyroid hormone production and hypothyroidism. Iodine

Section 99.0 Epilepsy & Seizures

What disorder is marked severe, brief attacks of altered consciousness, motor activity, sensory phenomena, and abnormal behavior caused by excessive discharge of cerebral neurons (i.e. seizures)? Epilepsy
In terms of seizures, _____ means a loss of consciousness, while _____ means no loss of consciousness. Complex; Simple
In terms of seizures, _____ means only part of the brain is affected, while _____ means the entire brain is affected. Partial; Generalized
What is the most common and most dramatic type of seizure? Grand mal (tonic-clonic) seizure
What type of seizure is marked by a brief, abrupt, self-limited loss of consciousness? What is the drug of choice for this condition? Petit mal (absence) seizure; Ethosuximide
What type of seizure occurs in children 3 month to 6 years of age in association with illnesses that cause high fevers? Febrile seizures
What type of seizure is a petit mal seizure? Grand mal? Myoclonic seizure? Jacksonian seizure? Generalized complex seizure; Generalized complex seizure; Simple generalized seizure; Simple focal seizure
What type of seizure is often called a temporal lobe seizure? Psychomotor seizure
What type of seizure is often associated with automatisms, sitting, and walking? Psychomotor seizure
What type of seizure features jerks and head nods? Myoclonic seizure
What type of seizure starts in one focal area, and then spreads to neighboring areas? Jacksonian seizure