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Hi Yield 89.3 - 94.0

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mhewett's version from 2016-07-17 21:11

Section 89.3 Cardiovascular Facts to Know

True or False: Pumonary vasculature pressures are much larger than systemic vascular pressures. False, pumonary vasculature pressures are much smaller than systemic vascular pressures.
Mathematically, how do you calculate pulse pressure? Systolic pressure - Diastolic pressure
True or False: Most blood at any given time is in the venous system. True
True or False: Speed (velocity) of the blood flow is proportional to the total cross sectional area of the blood vessels through which it is traveling. False, speed (velocity) of the blood flow is inversely proportional to the total cross sectional area of the blood vessels through which it is traveling.
What part of the vasculature is associated with the slowest flow of blood? Fastest? Capillaries; Aorta
_____ is the ease with which blood flows through a blood vessel. It is the inverse of _____. Conductance; Resistance
_____ is the totoal amount of blood that can remain or be stored in a particular blood vessel at a given pressure. Compliance (capacitance)
Which has a greater compliance, arteries or veins? In most cases, does sympathetic stimulation increase or decrease compliance of blood vessels? What are the two exceptions? Arteries; Decrease; (1) Skeletal muscle (2) Cardiac muscle
What are the two most important elements to affect pulse pressure? (1) Stroke volume (2) Arterial compliance
How is pulse pressure affected by aortic valve stenosis? Patent ductus arteriosus? Aortic regurgitation? Decreased; Increased; Increased
_____ is the term used to describe contraction of the heart, while _____ is used to describe heart relaxation. Systole; Diastole
What is a normal mean arterial pressure? Using diastolic and systolic pressures, how do you calculate mean arterial pressure? 70-110 mmHg; = 2/3 diastolic + 1/3 systolic
_____ is the average overall body-wide pressure in blood vessels during once cardiac cycle. Mean arterial pressure
What is the major stimulator for venous movement? Contraction of skeletal muscle
What are the four forces that determine fluid filtration through capillaries? (1) Capillary hydrostatic pressure (2) Interstitial hydrostatic pressure (3) Plasma oncotic pressure (4) Interstitial oncotic pressure
Failure of venous valves often causes _____. Varicose veins
What protein is primarily responsible for oncotic pressure? What organ is it produced by? Albumin; Liver
What heart sound is associated with closing of the mitral valve? Closing of the aortic valve? S1; S2
_____ is the volume of blood pumped by the heart in one minute. _____ is the volume of blood pumped by the heart with one contraction. Cardiac output; Stroke volume
Mathematically, how do you cardiac output? Stroke volume? CO = Stroke volume x Heart rate; SV = End diastolic volume - End systolic volume
What condition is marked by inadequate heart failure? Heart failure
In general, most cases of high cardiac output are due to _____. What four conditions often lead to high cardiac output? Decreased total peripheral resistance; (1) Beriberi (thiamine dificiency) (2) Anemia (3) Hyperthyroidism (4) Arteriovenous shunt

Section 89.4.0 Skeletal Muscle Blood Vessels

What are the six causes of vasodilation in skeletal muscle? (1) Beta-2 receptor activation (2) K+ elevation (3) Hydrogen elevation (4) Lactic acid elevation (5) Carbon dioxide elevation (6) Adenosine elevation

Section 89.4.1 Cardiac Muscle Blood Vessels

What are the seven causes of vasodilation in cardiac muscle? (1) Beta-2 receptor activation (2) K+ elevation (3) Hydrogen elevation (4) Prostaglandin elevation (5) Carbon dioxide elevation (6) Adenosine elevation (7) Bradykinin elevation

Section 90 Hemoglobin

What are the four most common causes for a right shift on a hemoglobin saturation curve? (1) High 2,3-DPG (2) Elevated carbon dioxide (3) Decreased serum pH (4) Elevated body temperature
On a hemoglobin saturation curve, is a left shift associated with an increase or decrease in oxygen affinity? Right shift? Increase; Decrease
When a hemoglobin saturation curve undergoes a left shift, will hemoglobin be more or less saturated at the same oxygen concentration? Right shift? More; Less
What are the four most common causes for a left shift on a hemoglobin saturation curve? (1) Low 2,3-DPG (2) Decreased carbon dioxide (3) Elevated serum pH (4) Decreased body temperature
Does myoglobin have a higher or low affinity for oxygen as compared to adult hemoglobin? Higher affinity
What hemoglobin pathology features Hb Bart and HbH? Alpha-thalassemia
What hemoglobin pathology features HbF and HbA2? Beta-thalassemia
Does fetal hemoglobin have a higher or low affinity for oxygen as compared to adult hemoglobin? Higher affinity

Section 91 Nephrology

What are the four primary components of the nephron? (1) Glomerular capillaries (2) Glomerulus (3) Bowman's capsule (4) Renal tubule
On average, renal blood flow constitutes about what percent of cardiac output? 20%
_____ is defined as the net volume of a substance removed from the blood by the kidneys and excreted into the urine. Renal clearance
Mathematically, how do you calculate renal clearance? = (Concentration in urine x Volume of urine)/ Concentration in plasma
_____ is the ratio of solute that has entered the kidneys and has successfully been excreted in the urine. Extraction ratio
What is the extraction ratio for para-aminohippurate (PAH)? What does that infer? 1; All PAH presented to the kidneys is excreted out into the urine
Is GFR increased, decreased, or unchanged by a decrease in glomerular capillary filtration corfficient? Increase bowman's capsule pressure? Increase in glomerular capillary oncotic pressure? Decreased; Decreased; Decreased
Is GFR increased, decreased, or unchanged by an increase in glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure? Decreased glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure? Sympathetic stimulation? Increased; Decreased; Decreased
Is GFR increased, decreased, or unchanged by diabetes mellitus? Urinary tract obstruction? Patient on ACE inhibitors? Decreased; Decreased; Decreased
Is GFR increased, decreased, or unchanged by angiotensin II? Sympathetic stimulation? Increased; Decreased
Is hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capillaries increased, decreased, or unchanged by vasodilation of the afferent arterioles? Vasodilation of efferent arterioles? Increased; Decreased
Is hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capillaries increased, decreased, or unchanged by vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles? Vasoconstriction of efferent arterioles? Decreased; Increased
Is bowman's space oncotic pressure increased, decreased, or unchanged by liver failure? Decreased
What part of the renal tubule are amino acids reabsorbed? Proximal convoluted tubule
What part of the renal tubule plays an important role in concentrating urine? Descending loop of henle
What part of the loop of henle is permeable to water? Impermeable? Descending loop; Ascending loop
What part of the renal tubule forms part of the juxtaglomerular complex? Distal convulted tubule (early)
What type of cells, found in the renal tubule, are controlled by aldosterone? Principal cells
What type of cells, found in the renal tubule, absorb K ions and secrete, in exchange, hydrogen ions? Intercalated cells
What part of the renal tubule would you expect to find principal and intercalated cells? Distal convulted tubule (late)/Collecting duct
What part of the renal tubule is most affected by ADH? Collecting duct
In what part of the renal tubule would you expect to find a Na+/H+ exchanger? What hypertensive drug is known to inhibit this pump? Proximal convoluted tubule; Calcium channel blockers
In what part of the renal tubule would you expect to find a Na+/Ca2+ exchanger? What hypertensive drug is known to inhibit this pump? Distal convulted tubule (early); Thiazides
What part of the renal tubule is affected by loop diuretics? Thick ascending loop of henle
In what part of the renal tubule would you expect to find a Na+/K+ exchanger? What hypertensive drug is known to inhibit this pump? Distal convulted tubule (late)/Collecting duct; Potassium spairing diuretics
In what part of the renal tubule would you expect to find a K+/H+ exchanger? What hypertensive drug is known to inhibit this pump? Collecting duct; Potassium spairing diuretics

Section 92-93 Fluids

What are the four major modulators of fluid intake and blood pressure in the body? (1) ADH (2) Sympathetic nervous system (3) Renin (4) H20 ingestion (PLUS minor contributors: ANP, NO)
How much of total body water is intracellular? Extracellular? 2/3; 1/3
How much of extracellular body water is interstitial fluid? Plasma? 3/4; 1/4
Under normal circumstances, what percent of blood is plasma? Hematocrit? 60%; 40%
Under normal circumstances, the pH of plasma should be between _____ and _____. 7.35-7.45
In a metabolic disorder do HCO3 and pCO2 move in the same or opposite directions? What is the normal mean value for HCO3? Same; 24 mmol/mg
In a respiratory disorder do HCO3 and pCO2 move in the same or opposite directions? What is the normal mean value for pCO2? Opposite; 40 mmHg
A patient has a blood pH of 7.30. HCO3 is 22 and pCO2 is 38. What acid-base disorder exists? Metabolic acidosis
Would you expect a patient with respiratory alkalosis to increase or decrease their HCO3? Respiratory acidosis? Decrease; Increase
What type of acid-base disorder would be caused by aspirin overdose? Loop diuretics? Sedation? Panic attack? Metabolic acidosis; Metabolic alkalosis; Respiratory alkalosis
What type of acid-base disorder would be caused by hyperventilation (e.g. pain)? Thiazide use? Diarrhea? COPD? Respiratory alkalosis; Metabolic alkalosis; Metaboic acidosis; Respiratory acidosis
What type of acid-base disorder would be caused by obstructive sleep apnea? Vomiting? Lactic acidosis? DKA? Respiratory acidosis; Metabolic alkalosis; Metabolic acidosis; Metabolic acidosis
What is the most important buffer in the human body? Bicarbonate (HCO3)
What enzyme catalyzes the intercoversion of CO2 and water to HCO3 and protons (or vice versa)? Carbonic anhydrase
What part of the renal tubule is responsible for the majority of bicarbonate reabsorption? Proximal convoluted tubule
Does metabolic acidosis cause an increase or decrease in serum potassium? Metabolic alkalosis? Increase (hyperkalemia); Decrease (hypokalemia)
Which is more commonly associated with the potential to cause an arrhytmia, acidosis or alkalosis? Why? Acidosis, because it causes an increase in serum potassium (hyperkalemia)
_____ is the volume of blood occupied by RBC mass. Hematocrit
What is the difference between blood plasma and serum? Serum do not have fibrinogen
The fluid component of blood and lymph is known as _____. Plasma
Does hypotone dehydration cause an increase, decrease, or no change in ICV? ECV? Hematocrit? Increase; Decrease; Increase
Does isosmotic dehydration cause an increase, decrease, or no change in ICV? ECV? Hematocrit? No change; Decrease; Increase
Does hypertone dehydration cause an increase, decrease, or no change in ICV? ECV? Hematocrit? Decrease; Decrease; No change
Does hypotone hydration cause an increase, decrease, or no change in ICV? ECV? Hematocrit? Increase; Increase; No change
Does isosmotic hydration cause an increase, decrease, or no change in ICV? ECV? Hematocrit? No change; Increase; Decrease
Does hypertone hydration cause an increase, decrease, or no change in ICV? ECV? Hematocrit? Decrease; Increase; Decrease
Does Conn's cause an increase, decrease, or no change in ICV? ECV? Hematocrit? Decrease; Increase; Decrease
Does SIADH cause an increase, decrease, or no change in ICV? ECV? Hematocrit? Increase; Increase; No change
Does diabetes insipidus cause an increase, decrease, or no change in ICV? ECV? Hematocrit? Decrease; Decrease; No change
Does Addison's cause an increase, decrease, or no change in ICV? ECV? Hematocrit? Increase; Decrease; Increase
Does excessive sweating cause an increase, decrease, or no change in ICV? ECV? Hematocrit? Decrease; Decrease; No change
In what type of fluid shift does sodium loss exceed water loss? Water loss exceed sodium loss? Hypotone dehydration; Hypertone dehydration
In what type of fluid shift does water gain exceed sodium gain? Sodium exceed water gain? Hypotone hydration; Hypertone hydration

Section 94.0 The RAA System

What type of cells secrete renin? JG cells
What organ secretes angiotensinogen? Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)? Liver; Lung
What is the primary stimulus to activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system? What is the end result? Low blood volume; Increased arterial pressure
What enzyme catalyzes the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotension I? Angiotensin I to angiotension II? Renin; Angiotension converting enzyme (ACE)
What are the two primary effects of angiotension II? (1) Increased aldosterone production (2) Vasoconstriction
Where is aldosterone made (be specific)? Adrenal gland's zona glomerulosa
What type of cells, found in the renal tubule, are controlled by aldosterone? Principal cells
What part of the renal tubule is most affected by aldosterone? Distal convulted tubule/Collecting duct
Does aldosterone cause an increase, decrease, or no change is sodium secretion? Postassium secretion? Water secretion? Decrease; Increase; Decrease