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Hi Yield 78.0-82.2

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mhewett's version from 2016-07-17 00:51

Section 78.0 Some Basics: Transcription and Translation

What type of RNA is the product of translation? Transcription? tRNA; mRNA
_____ is the process of reading mRNA to determine the amino acid sequence of a growing polypeptide, while _____ is the process of reading a DNA strand to produce mRNA. Translation; Transcription
_____ is the process of reading a DNA strand to produce mRNA; while _____ is the process of reading mRNA to determine the amino acid sequence of a growing polypeptide. Transcription; Translation

Section 78.1 Transcription

What is the enzyme that catalyzes the production of RNA from DNA? RNA polymerase
What enzyme acts as RNA polymerase in bacteria? What are its two components? Holoenzyme; (1) Core enzyme (2) Sigma factor
What component of bacterial holoenzyme is responsible for recognizing the promoter region? Responsible for 5'-3' RNA polymerase activity? Sigma factor; Core enzyme
Is prokaryotic mRNA poly or monocistronic? How about Eukaryotic mRNA? Polycistronic; Monocistronic
A _____ is a region of DNA that encodes a single protein. Cistron
What are the two sequences on DNA recognized by RNA polymerase? What RNA polymerase make mRNA (i.e. is responsible for transcribing DNA)? (1) CAAT (2) TATA
What RNA polymerase makes rRNA? tRNA? mRNA? Which is inhibited by alpha-amanitin? Polymerase I; Polymerase III; Polymerase II; Polymerase II
What are the four processes eukaryotic mRNA must undergo before exiting the nucleus? (1) Addition of 5' cap (2) Addition of poly-A tail (3) Introns are removed (4) Exons are spliced together
What part of RNA processing facilitates the initiation of translation and helps stabilize mRNA? 5'-cap
What part of RNA processing helps mRNA exit from the nucleus and helps stabilize mRNA? Poly-A tail
What is the name for the group of proteins that are responsible for the excision of introns during RNA processing? snRNPs

Section 78.2 DNA Replication

During DNA replication, is the parental strand read in the 5'-3' or 3'-5' direction? How about the new strand? 3'-5'; 5'-3
During DNA replication, what protein separates DNA strands? What protein prevents re-annealing of DNA strands? Helicase; Single-stranded binding proteins
During DNA replication, what protein copies the parental strand and makes an RNA primer? What protein joins Okazaki fragments? Primase; Ligase
What eukaryotic DNA polymerase is the RNA primase? Continues primer elongation on the leading strand? Continues primer elongation of the lagging strand? Polymerase alpha; Polymrase epsilon; Polymerase gamma
What bacterial DNA polymerase is the major DNA polymerase? Which has 5' exonuclease activity? Polymerase III; Polymerase I

Section 79.0 Physiology

Question Answer
Is the concentration of sodium higher in the intra- or extracellular space? Proteins? Calcium? Potassium? Phosphate?Extracellular; Intracellular; Extracellular; Intracellular; Intracellular
What type of membrane proteins extend the entire thickness of the cell membrane?Integral proteins
What type of membrane proteins often function as hormone receptors? Carrier proteins?Peripheral proteins; Integral proteins
The entire outside surface of most cells is coated in a carbohydrate mesh known as the _____.Glycocalyx
memorize

Section 80.0 Transport through the Cell Membrane

Question Answer
What are the two general mechanisms by which transport through the cell membrane occurs?(1) Diffusion (2) Active transport
What are the two types of intracellular connections?(1) Tight junctions (2) Gap junctions
memorize

Section 80.1 Diffusion

Question Answer
What two types of substances can diffuse directly through the phospholipid bilayer without ion channels or pores?(1) Water (2) Hydrophobic substances
What are the two types of diffusion? Which type requires a carrier protein?(1) Simple diffusion (2) Facilitated transport
Facilitated transport
memorize

Section 80.2 Active Transport

Question Answer
What general mechanism of transport through the cell membrane requires using energy?Active transport
Active transport can be primary or secondary. What type uses energy derived from ATP or similar phosphorylated molecules?Primary active transport
Is the Na-K pump an example of primary or secondary active transport? Does it move sodium into or out of the cell?Primary, Out of the cell
How many sodiums does the Na-K pump remove each cycle? How many potassium does it bring in?3;2
What are the two locations you would expect to find H/K ATPases? Where would you find Ca-ATPase?Gastric parietal cells, Collecting ducts of the kidney
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Active transport can be primary or secondary. What type uses energy obtained from energy stored in the form of concentration differences of ions across a cell membrane?Secondary active transport
What are the two types of secondary active transport? What type allows for the passage of an ion in the opposite direction from the molecule that created the gradient?(1) Co-transport (2) Counter-transport; Counter-transport
memorize

Section 81.0 Ion Channels

Question Answer
_____ is the probability of an ion channel being open.Permeability (conductance)
What are the two types of ion channels?(1) Voltage-gated (2) Ligand-gated
What is the name of the equation used to calculate the membrane potential of any ion?Nernst equation
What is the approximate resting membrane potential in most cells? What is it in neurons?-70 mV; -90 mV
Does a negative membrane potential imply that the inside of a cell is more positive or negative than the outside?Negative
At rest, is the concentration of sodium higher in the intra- or extracellular space? Calcium? Potassium?Extracellular Extracellular; Intracellular
If during rest a small amount of sodium enters a neuron, does the resting potential become more positive, negative, or remain unchanged?More positive
What part of an action potential is due to an influx of sodium?Depolarization
At approximately what voltage does a neuron reach its threshold to activation?-70 mV to -50 mV
Does depolarization cause potassium channels to open or close? Is this a slow or fast process (relatively)?Open; Slow
During an action potential sodium reaches an equilibrium at approximately what voltage? This value is known as a(n) _____.+65 mV; Overshoot
What part of an action potential is due to the re-establishment of the resting membrane potential by potassium?Repolarization
During an action potential potassium reaches an equilibrium at approximately what voltage? This value is known as a(n) _____.-85 mV; Hyperpolarization (undershoot)
_____ is the period of time in which another action potential cannot be generated.Absolute refractory period
_____ is the period of time in which another action potential can be created if a stronger that usual stimulus is encountered. Does this occur during depolarization, repolarization, or hyperpolarization?Relative refractory period; Hyperpolarization
What type of channel is primarily responsible for the maintenance of the resting membrane potential?K channels
Repolarization is due to the closure of _____ channels.Na channels
Instead of opening Na channels, inhibitory postsynaptic potentials open _____ channels.Cl channels
What ion is responsible for the majority of cell's resting potential?Potassium
memorize

Section 81.1 Neurophysiology

Action potentials that travel from the periphery to the CNS represent _____ impulses, while those that travel from the CNS to the periphery represent _____ impulses. Afferent; Efferent
What type of nerve fiber is the largest? Smallest? A-alpha fiber; C-fiber
What type of nerve fiber is the fastest? Slowest? A-alpha fiber; C-fiber
What type of nerve fibers are associated with post-ganglionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system? Alpha-motoneurons? C-fiber; A-alpha fiber
Do excitatory neurotransmitters cause depolarization or hyperpolarization? How about inhibitory neurotransmitters? Depolarization; Hyperpolarization
What type of channels are typically utilized by excitatory neurotransmitters to cause depolarization? Sodium channels
What type of channels are typically utilized by excitatory neurotransmitters to cause hyperpolarization? Chloride channels
Is acetylcholine usually classified as an excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitter? Glycine? GABA? Epinephrine? Excitatory; Inhibitory; Inhibitory; Excitatory
What type of neurotransmitter does a adrenergic receptor bind? 5-HT receptor? Kainate receptor? Cholinergic receptor? Norepinephrine/epinephrine; Serotonin; Glutamate; Acetylcholine
Are D1 receptors inhibitory or excitatory? D2 receptors? What enzyme do they effect? Excitatory; Inhibitory; Adenylate cyclase
What ion is increased by activation of GABAa receptors? GABAb receptors? Chloride; Potassium
What nucleus in the pons is said to control activity levels and states of wakefulness? What neurotransmitter does it primarily secrete? Norepinephrine
What is the only part of the body that secretes epinephrine? What neurotransmitter is primarily secreted by the substania nigra? Adrenal gland; Dopamine

Section 82.0 Autonomic Nervous System

What division of the autonomic nervous system is said to have a thoracolumbar outflow? Craniosacral outflow? Sympathetic; Parasympathetic
Are preganglionic nerve fibers of the sympathetic nervous system long or short? Post-ganglionic? Short; Long
Are preganglionic nerve fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system long or short? Post-ganglionic? Long; Short
What neurotransmitter is released by all preganglionic nerve fibers of the autonomic nervous system to stimulate post-ganglionic nerves? Acetylcholine
What neurotransmitter is released by all post-ganglionic nerve fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system that innervate tissues? Acetylcholine
What neurotransmitter is released by most post-ganglionic nerve fibers of the sympathetic nervous system that innervate tissues? What are the three exceptions? Norepinephrine; (1) Sweat glands (2) Piloerector muscles (3) Adrenal medulla
What neurotransmitter is released by the post-ganglionic nerve fibers of the sympathetic nervous system that innervate sweat glands and piloerector muscles? Acetylcholine
What neurotransmitter is released by the post-ganglionic nerve fibers of the sympathetic nervous system at the adrenal medulla? Norepinephrine and Epinephrine
What other peripheral nervous system location uses acetylcholine other than those situations involving the autonomic nervous system? Neuromuscular junction

Section 82.1 Neurotransmitters and Their Receptors

What are the two types of neurotransmitter receptors associated with the autonomic nervous system? (1) Cholinergic (2) Adrenergic
What are the two types of cholinergic receptors? What type is found on all parasympathetically innervated tissues? (1) Muscarinic (2) Nicotinic; Muscarinic
What type of nicotinic receptor is found on all post-ganglionic neurons? Type I
What type of nicotinic receptor is found on all skeletal muscle? Type II

Section 82.1.1 Muscarinic Receptors

What type of G protein activates phospholipase C (PLC)? Stimulates adenylate cyclase? Inhibits adenylate cyclase? Gq; Gs; Gi
What type of muscarinic receptor would you expect to find on heart? Gastric parietal cells? M2; M1
What type of muscarinic receptor would you expect to find on most tissues? What G protein is it associated with? M3; Gq
What are the two primary muscarinic receptors of the CNS? Which is stimulatory? Which is inhibitory? (1) M4 (2) M5; M5; M4

Section 82.1.2 Adrenergic Receptors

What type of adrenergic receptor is associated with GI inhibition? Decreased insulin release? Bronchodilation? Alpha 1; Alpha 2; Beta 2
What type of adrenergic receptor is increased coagulation; vasodilation of blood vessels in skeletal and cardiac muscle? Vasoconstriction? Alpha 2; Beta 2; Alpha 1
What type of adrenergic receptor is found primarily on the heart and kidney? What type of G protein is it associated with? Beta 1; Gs

Section 82.2 Autonomic Nervous System Effects

What is the primary effect of epinephrine? Norepinephrine? Vasodilation in skeletal muscle; Vasoconstriction
What type of receptor causes an increased HR, increased conductance, and increased force of heart contraction? Are these sympathetic or parasympathetic responses? Beta 1; Sympathetic
What type of receptor triggers ejaculation and mydriasis? Are these sympathetic or parasympathetic responses? Alpha 1; Sympathetic
What type of receptor stimulates glucose release from the liver and relaxation of the gallbladder? Are these sympathetic or parasympathetic responses? Beta 2; Sympathetic
What type of receptor triggers dilation of muscle arterioles and bronchi? Are these sympathetic or parasympathetic responses? Beta 2; Sympathetic
What type of receptor decreases GI motility, constricts GI sphincters, and allows filling of the rectum? Are these sympathetic or parasympathetic responses? Alpha 1; Sympathetic
What type of receptor relaxes the detrusor and contracts the trigone? Are these sympathetic or parasympathetic responses? Alpha 1; Sympathetic
What type of receptor causes constriction of the arterioles to the abdominal viscera and skin? Are these sympathetic or parasympathetic responses? Alpha 1; Sympathetic
What type of receptor triggers coagulation as well as an increase in serum glucose and lipids? Are these sympathetic or parasympathetic responses? Alpha 2; Sympathetic
Is lipolysis a sympathetic or parasympathetic response? How about uterine relaxation? Sympathetic; Sympathetic
What type of receptor causes a decreased HR and decreased force of heart contraction? Are these sympathetic or parasympathetic responses? M2; Parasympathetic
What type of receptor triggers erection and miosis? Are these sympathetic or parasympathetic responses? M3; Parasympathetic
What type of receptor increases GI motility, relaxes GI sphincters, and empties the contents of the rectum? Are these sympathetic or parasympathetic responses? M3; Parasympathetic
What type of receptor trigger bronchi dilation and uterine contraction? Are these sympathetic or parasympathetic responses? M3; Parasympathetic
What type of receptor contracts the detrusor and relaxes the trigone? Are these sympathetic or parasympathetic responses? M3; Parasympathetic