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Hi Yield 58.0 - 77.0

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mhewett's version from 2016-07-10 21:14

Section 58.0 Carbohydrates

What do you can a six carbon sugar? Hexose
Hexoses can be in an alpha or beta configuration. What configuration is digestable? Alpha
Hexoses can be in an alpha or beta configuration. What configuration is indigestable? What is the exception? Beta; Lactose (galactose-beta-1,4-glucose)
All six carbon sugars (hexoses) require _____ before they can be used by the body. What are the two primary enzymes that carry out this function? Phosphorylation; (1) Hexokinase (2) Glucokinase
Which enzyme has a better affinity for glucose, hexokinase or glucokinase? Which has a higher Vmax? Hexokinase; Glucokinase
Which enzyme is always present, hexokinase or glucokinase? Which is inducible (i.e. synthesized when needed)? Hexokinase; Glucokinase
Which enzyme has a specificty for glucose only, hexokinase or glucokinase? Which has a specificity for all hexoses? Glucokinase; Hexokinase
Which enzyme is only found in the liver, hexokinase or glucokinase? Which is found in most tissues? Glucokinase; Hexokinase
What is the function of hexokinase? Glucokinase? Ensure a supply of glucose to tissues; Remove glucose from blood following a meal
What two sugars compose maltose? Lactose? Sucrose? Glucose + Glucose; Glucose + Galactose; Glucose + Fructose
Hexoses can be in an alpha or beta configuration. What configuration would you expect to find in cellulose? Lactose? Starch? Chitin? Which of these are digestable? Beta; Beta; Alpha; Beta; Lactose and Starch
What type of bond connects the two sugars that compose maltose? Lactose? Sucrose? Alpha-1,4; Beta-1,4; Alpha-1,2

Section 58.1 Saccharide Disorders

What enzyme is deficient/defective in fructosuria? Fructose intolerance? Lactose intolerance? Frucktokinase; Adolase B; Lactase
Which is associated with renal and liver failure, fructosuria or fructose intolerance? Which is benign? Fructose intolerance; Fructosuria
What enzyme is deficient/defective in galactosuria? What is this conditions pattern of inheritance? Galactose-1-PO4 uridylyl transferase; Autosomal recessive
What enzyme disorder is characterized by mental and physical stunting after the introduction of milk into the diet? What is the treatment? Galactosuria; Eliminate milk and milk products
If a pregnant mother is galactosemic, what abnormality might the fetus develop in utero? Cataracts

Section 59.0 Glycogen Storage Diseases

What is the rate limiting enzyme in glycogen synthesis? Glycogen synthase
What is the rate limiting enzyme in glycogenolysis? Glycogen phosphorylase
What three part of the body have the ability to synthesize glycogen? (1) Kidney (2) Muscle (3) Liver
What enzyme, central to the break down of glycogen, is present in kidney and liver, but not muscle? Glucose-6-phosphatase
What glycogen storage disease is associated with an accumulation of glucose-6-phosphate and glucose-1-phosphate? What enzyme is deficient/defective? Type I (Von Gierke); Glucose-6-phosphatase
What glycogen storage disease causes an accumulation of all branch points on glycogen? What enzyme is deficient/defective? Type III (Cori's); Debranching enzyme
What glycogen storage disease causes hepatomegaly, cardiomegaly, muscle hypotonia, and death (often by age 2)? What enzyme is deficient/defective? Type II (Pompe); Alpha-glucosidase
What glycogen storage disease is associated with an accumulation of glycogen in skeletal muscle and an inability to access it when needed? What enzyme is deficient/defective? Type V (McArdle); Skeletal muscle phosphorylase

Section 60.0 Glycosaminoglycans

What is the only glycosaminoglycan also found in bacteria? What is the most abundant glycosaminoglycan? Hyaluronic acid; Chondroitin SO4

Section 60.1 Mucopolysaccharidoses

What mucopolysaccharidosis is associated with corneal clouding and mental retardation? What enzyme is deficient/defective? Hurler; Alpha-L iduronidase
What mucopolysaccharidosis is associated with corneal clouding and normal intelligence? What enzyme is deficient/defective? Scheie; Alpha-L iduronidase
What mucopolysaccharidosis is associated with normal corneas and mental retardation? What enzyme is deficient/defective? Hunter; Iduronate sulfatase
What two glycosaminoglycans accumulate in mucopolysaccharidoses? How are these disease inherited? (1) Heparan SO4 (2) Dermatan SO4; Autosomal recessive

Section 61.0 Proteoglycans

Section 62.0 Porphyrias

Porphyrias are due to a defect in _____ biosynthesis. They are inherited in a(n) _____ pattern. Heme; Autosomal dominant
What amino acid is responsible for the formation of heme? Glycine
How does lead effect heme synthesis? Decreases (microcytic anemia)
What is photosensitivity in patients with porphyrias is due to? What porphyria is not associated with photosensitivity? Accumulation of porphyrinogen; Acute intermittent
What is the most common porphyria? Cutanea tarda
What two molecules combine to form heme? What enzyme catalyzes the conversion? (1) Iron (2) Protoprophyrin IX; Ferrochelatase
The formation of heme is dependent on the amino acid glycine. In the first step of heme synthesis glycine combines with _____ to produce _____. Succinyl CoA; Delta-amino levulinic acid
What enzyme converts delta-amino levulinic acid into porphobilinogen? Amino levulinic acid dehydrase
What are the three components of porphyria treatment? (1) IV hemin (2) Avoid sunlight (except acute intermittent) (3) Beta-carotene

Section 63.0 Preferred Fuels

What is the preferred fuel for the brain? RBCs? Skeletal muscle? Glucose; Glucose; Fatty acids
Does the heart have the ability to work in anaerobic conditions? How about skeletal muscle? No; Yes

Section 64.0 Glucose & Ketone Bodies: Facts

During fasting, what organ plays the primary role of maintaining normoglycemia? Liver
What are three three substrates that can be used for gluconeogenesis? (1) Lactic acid (2) Glycerol (3) Alpha-ketoacids
Ketone bodies are the result of the catabolism of _____ and _____. Triglycerides; Fatty acids
How many hours of starvation does it usually take to empty all glycogen stores within the body? After how many hour does gluconeogenesis begin? 10-18 hours; 4-6 hours

Section 65.0 Vitamins

What vitamin deficiency is associated with night blindness, skin disorders, and loss of taste? Vit. A (retinal)
What vitamin deficiency is associated with gum abnormalities, loss teeth, and fragile blood vessels? What is this condition called? Vit. C (asorbic acid); Scurvy
What vitamin deficiency is assocaited with ataxia and hemolysis in infants? What vitamin deficiency is associated with glossitis and cheilosis? Vit. E; Vit. B2 (riboflavin)
What vitamin deficiency is often a cause of bleeding disorders? What vitamin deficiency causes rickets (childre) and osteomalacia (adults)? Vit. K; Vit. D
What vitamin deficiency is associated with an increased risk of color, breast, and pancreatic cancer? Vit. D
What vitamin deficiency causes Wernicke's encephalopathy and korsakoff dementia? Vit. B1 (thiamine)
What vitamin deficiency is often associated with microcytic anemia? Macrocytic anemia? Vit. B6; Vit. B12 (cyancobalamin) and Folic acid
What vitamin deficiency is known to cause neuropathy? What vitamin deficiency causes beriberi? Vit. B12 (cyancobalamin); Vit. B1 (thiamine)
What vitamin deficiency causes pellagra? What are the three classic symptoms of this disease? Vit. B3 (niacin); (1) Dermatitis (2) Dementia (3) Diarrhea
What vitamin deficiency is associated with glossitis, colitis, and neural tube defects? What vitamin deficiency is assocaited with seborrheic dermatitis, anorexia, and nervous disorders? Folic acid; Biotin
What vitamin serves as a cofactor for norepinephrine synthesis? What vitamin has been show to slow the progression of Alzheimers? Vit. C (asorbic acid); Vit. E
What are the fat soluble vitamins? What are the vitamin K dependent coagulation factors? Vit. K, A, D, E; Factor 2, 7, 9, 10
What is the most common vitamin deficiency in the US? What is our primary source of vitamin K? Folic acid; Gut flora
What vitamin deficiency is often associated with isoniazid administration? What vitamin deficiency is often associated with the fish tape worm (Diphyllobthrium latum)? Vit. B6; Vit. B12 (cyancobalamin)

Section 66.0 Glycolysis

All six carbon sugars (hexoses) require _____ before they can be used by the body. What are the two primary enzymes that carry out this function? Phosphorylation; (1) Hexokinase (2) Glucokinase
During the initial step of glycolysis, glucose is converted into _____. What enzyme catalyzes this reaction? Glucose-6-phosphate; Hexokinase or Glucokinase
During glycolysis, fructose-6-phosphate is converted into _____. What enzyme catalyzes this reaction? Fructose-1,6-phosphate; Phosphofructokinase I (PFK I)
During glycolysis, excess amounts of fructose-6-phosphate are shunted and converted into _____. What enzyme catalyzes this reaction? Fructose-2,6-phosphate; Phosphofructokinase II (PFK II)
Does excess fructose-6-phosphate cause an increase or decrease in phosphofructokinase II (PFK II) activity? Increase
What are the two most potent activators of phosphofructokinase I (PFK I)? (1) Insulin (2) Fructose-2,6-phosphate
What are the two biproducts of fructose-1,6-phosphate catabolism? (1) Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (2) Dihydroxyacetone-phosphate
During the final step of glycolysis, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is converted into _____. What enzyme catalyzes this reaction? Pyruvate; Pyruvate kinase

Section 67.0 Gluconeogenesis

During gluconeogenesis, glucose-6-phosphate is converted into _____. What enzyme catalyzes this reaction? Glucose; Glucose-6-phosphatase
During gluconeogenesis, fructose-1,6-phosphate is converted into _____. What enzyme catalyzes this reaction? Fructose-6-phosphate; Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase
During gluconeogenesis, oxaloacetate is converted into _____. What enzyme catalyzes this reaction? Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP); Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase
During gluconeogenesis, pyruvate is converted into _____. What enzyme catalyzes this reaction? Oxaloacetate; Pyruvate carboxylase
Is gluconeogenesis increased, decreased, or unaffected by insulin? Steroids? Epinephrine? Decreased; Increased; Increased

Section 68.0 Fatty Acid Synthesis Rate Control

What is the rate limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis? Acetyl CoA carboxylase

Section 69.0 Ketone Body Synthesis: Review

Where does ketogenesis exclusively occur? Liver mitochondria
In the mitochondial matrix, what are the two possible pathways for acetyl CoA? (1) TCA (2) Ketogenesis (occurs when there is an over abundance of acetyl CoA)
What enzyme facilitates the movement of acyl CoA across the inner mitochondrial membrane? Carnitine palmitoyl transferase
How does malonyl CoA effect the activity of carnitine palmitoyl transferase I? Inhibits
Do small-chain fatty acids require carnitine palmitoyl transferase to pass through the inner mitochondrial membrane? Medium-chain? Long-chain? No; No; Yes (Any fatty acid chain larger than 12 carbons requires the enzyme)

Section 70.0 Purine Synthesis

Uric acid is created by the break down of _____. Purines (adenosine, guanosine)
What nuceloside are both adenine and guanine derived from? Inosine monophosphate (IMP)
What enzyme catalyzes the conversion of inosine monophosphate (IMP) to guanosine monophosphate (GMP)? Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT)
What enzyme catalyzes the conversion of inosine monophosphate (IMP) to adenosine monophosphate (AMP)? Adenosine phosphoribosyl transferase (ARPT)

Section 71.0 Pyrimidine Synthesis

Section 72.0 Citric Acid Cycle

Before entering the kreb's cycle, pyruvate must be converted into _____. What enzyme catalyzes this reaction? Acetly CoA; Pyruvate dehydrogenase
What is the first molecule in the citric acid cycle? What is it converted to? Acetly CoA; Citrate
What molecule, produced during the citric acid cycle, also plays a role in gluconeogenesis? Malate

Section 73.0 ATP Production

What are the three major reactions in aerobic respiration? Which reaction is oxygen dependent? (1) Glycolysis (2) Krebs cycle (3) Electron transport chain; Electron transport chain
What is the net amount of ATP produced per glucose during glycolysis? Decarboxylation of pyruvate? Kreb's cycle? Electron transport chain? 2; 0; 2; 34

Section 74.0 Pyruvate Decarboxylation

How many pyruvates are produced per glucose in glycolysis? 2

Section 75.0 Endocrine Control of Metabolism

What type of cells secrete insulin? Glucagon? Pancreatic beta-islet cells; Pancreatic alpha cells

Section 76.0 Hormones, Fuels, and Metabolism

Is insulin production increased, decreased, or unchanged by glucose? Epinephrine? Amino acids? Increased; Decreased; Increased
Is glucagon production increased, decreased, or unchanged by glucose? Epinephrine? Amino acids? Decreased; Increased; Increased
Does insulin promotes fat anabolism (synthesis), catabolism (break down), or both? How does it effect carbohydrates? How does it effect proteins? Anabolism; Anabolism; Anabolism
Does glucagon promotes fat anabolism (synthesis), catabolism (break down), or both? How does it effect carbohydrates? How does it effect proteins? Catabolism; Both; Anabolism
Does growth hormone promotes fat anabolism (synthesis), catabolism (break down), or both? How does it effect carbohydrates? How does it effect proteins? Catabolism; Both; Anabolism
Does cortisol promotes fat anabolism (synthesis), catabolism (break down), or both? How does it effect carbohydrates? How does it effect proteins? Catabolism; Anabolism; Catabolism
What neurotransmitter is central to the flight or fight response? Epinephrine

Section 77.0 Nucleotides

What are the two purine that compose RNA and DNA? (1) Adenine (2) Guanine
What are the two pyrimidines that compose RNA? DNA? (1) Uracil (2) Cytosine; (1) Thymine (2) Cytosine
In DNA, adenine pairs with _____ and guanine pairs with _____. Thymine; Cytosine
In RNA, adenine pairs with _____ and guanine pairs with _____. Uracil; Cytosine
_____ are three adjacent nucelotides in RNA or DNA. _____ are three adjacent nucleotides in tRNA. Codons; Anticodons
A tRNA anticodon of GAA will may with an mRNA codon of _____. CUU
The _____ is the third codon position in mRNA. Wobble base
At what position on mRNA is base pairing not consistent with Watson-Crick base pair rules? What is the name for this position? 3rd position; Wobble base
In the salvaging of purine bases, hypoxanthine is converted into _____. Guanine is converted into _____. Adenine is converted into _____. Inosine monophosphate (IMP); Guanosine monophosphate (GMP); Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)
What is the final product of purine base degradation? Uric acid