Create
Learn
Share

Hi Yield 49.1 - 54.0

rename
mhewett's version from 2016-07-10 21:47

Section 49.1 Malaria

What is the only life cycle stage of malaria that can enter RBCs? What life cycle stage is injected by a mosquito? Merozoites; Sporozoites
Within 30 minutes of entry, malarial sporozoites enter the _____, where they develop into _____. Liver; Merozoites
How often do merozoites lyse RBCs? Every 48 hours
What is the only life cycle stage of malaria that can be successfully consumed by mosquitoes? Gametocytes
What species of malaria infects both mature and immature RBCs? What species of malaria only infects mature RBCs? Plasmodium falciparum; Plasmodium malariae
What species of malaria causes black water fever? What causes the "black water?" Plasmodium falciparum; Hemoglobinuria (RBC lyses)
What is the drug of choice for the prophylaxis and treatment of chloroquine sensitive malaria? Chloroquine
What is the drug of choice for the prophylaxis of chloroquine resistant malaria? Atovaquone-proguanil
What species of malaria has a 72 hour cycle instead of 48? Plasmodium malariae

Section 49.2 Babesia

What protozoa often occurs in pairs and tetrads (maltese cross formation)? What is its vector? Babesia; Tick
What protozoa is marked by trophozoites on blood smear? What is its vector? Babesia; Tick

Section 50.0 Tissue Protozoa

What protozoa is known to cause diffuse interstitial pneumonia in AIDs patients and premies? How is it transmitted? Pneumocystis jiroveci; Inhalation
What is the treatment for pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia? At what point would you begin prophylaxis in an HIV positive patient? Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX); CD<200
What protozoa is known to causes bilateral rales and ronchi in AIDs patients and premies? What stain is used for diagnosis? Pneumocystis jiroveci; Silver stain
What protozoa is found in uder-cooked meats and cat feces? Toxoplasma gondii
What is the drug of choice for prophylaxis against toxoplasmosis? Treatment? Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX); Pyrimethamine + Sulfadiazine + Leucovorin
What protozoa is known to cause Kala-Azar and Black sickness? What is its vector? Leishmani donovani; Sandfly
What is the treatment for cutaneuous leishmaniasis? For mucosal or systemic leishmaniasis? Stibogluconate; Amphotericin B
What protozoa is known to cause espundia, mucocutaneous ulcers and destruction of nasal cartilage? Leishmani brasiliensis
What protozoa is known to cause Chagas disease? What is its vector? Trypanosoma cruzi; Reduviid bug (kissing bug)
What protozoal infection is often associated with toxic megacolon, arrhythmias, CHF, or mega-esophagus? What is the causative agent? Chagas disease; Trypanosoma cruzi
What protozoa is transmitted by the bite of the kissing bug? What is the treatment? Trypanosoma cruzi; Nifurtimox (only in acute phase)
What is the vector for both subspecieis of Trypanosoma brucei? Which causes East African sleeping sickness? Which causes West African sleeping sickness? Tse-tse fly; Rhodesiense; Gambiense
What is the reservoir for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense? Is this the cause of East or West African sleeping sickness? Humans; West African sleeping sickness
What is the reservoir for Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense? Is this the cause of East or West African sleeping sickness? Cattle; East African sleeping sickness
Which is more severe, East or West African sleeping sickness? What is the causative agent? East African sleeping sickness; Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense
What protozoa is known to cause a sleep-wake cycle that is opposite of normal? Trypanosoma brucei
What is the drug of choice for early stage (stage 1 or 2) East African sleeping sickness? Early stage West African sleeping sickness? Suramin; Pentamidine
What is the drug of choice for late stage (stage 3) East African sleeping sickness? Late stage West African sleeping sickness? Melarsoprol; Eflornithine

Section 51.0 Intestinal Protozoa

What protozoa is known to cause tear drop or flask-shaped ulcers in the colon (blood diarrhea)? Entamoeba histolytica
What protozoa is known to cause amebiasis? Is the infective form the cyst or trophozoite? Entamoeba histolytica; Cyst
What is the drug of choice for the treatment of trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis) and amoebiasis (Entamoeba histolytica)? Metronidazole
What protozoa is often associated with hikers/campers drinking stream water? What part of the body does it infect? Giardia lamblia; Small intestine
What protozoa is known to cause non-bloody, foul-smelling diarrhea? What drug is used to treat this infection? Giardia lamblia; Tinidazole
What intestinal protozoa is marked by a trophozoite with 2 nuceli and four pairs of flagella? How about 1 nucleus and 4 flagella? Giardia lamblia; Trichomonas vaginalis
What protozoa is often acquired through drinking public water/tap water? What drug is used to treat this infection? Cryptosporidium; Nitazoxanide
What protozoa has a pear shape with 1 nucleus and 4 flagella? What disease is it most known for? Trichmonas vaginalis; Trichomoniasis (STI)
What is the drug of choice for Trichomonas vaginalis? Metronidazole

Section 52.0 Other Protozoa

What protozoa is often acquired by swimming in warm water in Southern US? What drug is used to treat this infection? Naegleria fowleri; Amphotericin B
What protozoa is known to enter through the nasal mucosa and pass through the cribiform plate? What drug is used to treat this infection? Naegleria fowleri; Amphotericin B

Section 53.0 Helminths

What are the two types of helminths? (1) Nematodes (roundworms) (2) Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
What are the two types of platyhelminthes (flatworms)? Which one is segmented? (1) Trematodes (flukes) (2) Cestodes (tapeworms); Cestodes (tapeworms)
What are the four major trematodes (flukes)? (1) Schistosoma (blood fluke) (2) Paragonimus (lung fluke) (3) Clonorchis (liver fluke) (4) Fasciola (live fluke)

Section 53.1 Flukes (Trematodes)

Which of the major flukes is found in fish? Crab? Clonorchis (liver fluke); Paragonimus (lung fluke)
Which of the three schistosomas (blood flukes) features and egg with a large lateral spine? What region of the body does it most commonly settle in? Schistosoma mansoni; Veins of colon
Which of the three schistosomas (blood flukes) features and egg with a small lateral spine? What region of the body does it most commonly settle in? Schistosoma japonicum; Veins of small intestine
Which of the three schistosomas (blood flukes) features and egg with a large terminal spine? What region of the body does it most commonly settle in? Schistosoma hematobium; Veins of bladder
How are all of the schistosomas (blood flukes) acquired? What organomegaly are they most associated with? Through skin from water; Splenomegaly
What fluke is known to settle in the liver and bile ducts? What fluke is known to settle in the lung? Clonorchis (liver fluke); Paragonimus (lung fluke)
Where do schistosomas mature into adult flukes? Clonorchis? Paragonimus? Fasciola? Liver; Bile ducts; Lungs; Bile ducts
Which fluke is known to cause bladder fibrosis and eventually bladder cancer? Schistosoma (blood fluke) hematobium
Which fluke is known to cause cholangitis and eventually cholangiocarcinoma? Clonorchis (liver fluke)
What is the largest fluke in the world? What region of the body does it most commonly settle in? Fasciola hepatica; Liver
Which fluke is acquired by the ingestion of infected watercress? What region of the body does it most commonly settle in? Fasciola hepatica; Liver

Section 53.2 Tapeworms (Cestodes)

What tapeworm is often found in undercooked pork? Where does it mature into an adult tapeworm? Taenia solium (pig tapeworm); Intestines
The pathogenesis of Taenia solium (pig tapeworm) is determined by the life cycle stage ingested. What life cycle stage is usually asymptomatic? Deadly? Larvae (cysticerci); Eggs (cystercosis)
What tapeworm is often found in undercooked beef? Where does it mature into an adult tapeworm? Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm); Small intestine
Whate tapeworm is known to cause a vitamin B12 deficiency? What type of anemia would it also cause? Diphyllobothrium latum; Megaloblastic anemia (with neurologic deficits)
What tapeworm is often found in raw/undercooked freshwater fish (e.g. trout, perch)? Diphyllobothrium latum
What tapeworm is often found in dog feces? What three organs are most affected? Enchinococcus granulosus (dog tapeworm); (1) Lung (2) Liver (3) Brain
What is the drug of choice for Enchinococcus granulosus (dog tapeworm)? None, tapeworms must be removed surgically with great care to avoid fatal anaphylaxis
What is the most common tapeworm in the US? What makes it different from other tapeworms? Hymenolepsis nana; Requires no intermediate and one infection usually results in thousands of worms in intestine
What tapeworm is often acquired by ingesting fleas from infected dogs and cats? Dipylidium caninum

Section 53.3 Roundworms (Nematodes)

What is the number one helminth in the US? What is another name for this organism? Enterobius vermicularis; Pinworm
What nematode is known to cause perianal pruitis, especially at night? What is the diagnostic test of choice? Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm); Scotch tape test
What is the drug of choice for Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)? Mebendazole
What nematode requires to trips to the small intestine to complete its life cycle? What is the drug of choice for this infection? Ascaris lumbricoides; Albendazole
What nematode is known to cause diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and iron-deficienct anemia? What is the drug of choice for this infection? Nector americanus; Albendazole
What nematode is often known as the New world hookworm? Old world hookworm? Which has teeth? Nector americanus; Ancylostoma duodenale; Ancylostoma duodenale
What nematode is usually asymptomatic, but may cause watery diarrhea and pneumonitis, especially in immunocompromised? Stongyloides
What nematode is known to cause fever, myalgia, periorbital pain, and cardiac symptoms? How do you treat this infection? Trichnilla spiralis; Albendazole + prednisone
What nematode is often acquired by the ingestion of undercooked prok, bear, or seal? How do you treat this infection? Trichnilla spiralis; Albendazole + prednisone
What nematode is known to cause filariasis (massive lymph node obstruction with limb edema) and elephantiasis? What is its vector? Wuchereria bancrofti; Mosquito
What nematode is known to cause river blindness? What is its vector? Onchocerca volvulus; Blackfly
What nematode is knonw to cause lizard skin and blinding eye lesions? What is its vector? Onchocerca volvulus; Blackfly
What nematode is classically seen crawing across the conjunctiva of its human host? What is its vector? Loa loa; Deer fly (mango fly)
What nematode cause crawling movement under the skin and multiple burning, pruritic ulcerated and blistered papules? What is drug of choice for this infection? Dranunculus medinensis; None, nematode must be removed surgically with great care to avoid fatal anaphylaxis
What nematode is known to cause symptoms that mimic appendicitis? What type of food is it acquired from? Anisakis simplex; Raw seafood
What type of leukocyte would be elevated in a type I hypersensitivity reaction or a helminthic infection? Eosinophil
Would a blood test be positive or negative in a patient with Wuchereria bancrofti? Onchocerca volvulus? Positive; Negative (nematode never enters blood)

Section 54.0 Biochemistry

Question Answer
What does cAMP do for the cells in terms of activity? (Increase/decrease)Increases cell's activity
What things stimulate adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP?NE, Epi, Beta agonists, ACTH, TSH, GLUCAGON (b/c the cell needs energy when glucagon is produced so obviously it needs cAMP as well)
What things inhibit adenylyl cyclase?Nicotinic acid (Niacin); ACh on M2 (heart) or M4 receptors; Alpha 2 agonists; Prostaglandin E; INSULIN (b/c cells are in a digestive phase taking in glucose for energy so they don't need cAMP at that moment)
What does cAMP stimulate?Protein Kinase A
Why do methylxanthines (caffeine) cause a boost in energy?They block the adenosine receptors thus preventing adenosine from inhibiting adenylyl cyclase (they inhibit the inhibitors)
memorize