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Hi Yield 23.0-33.0

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mhewett's version from 2016-07-02 20:59

Section 23.0 Most Common Causes

Question Answer
Exudative tonsillitisviruses (MC is EBV)
RhinitisRhinovirus
Acute sinusitisviruses, Streptococcus pneumoniae
Otitis mediaStreptococcus pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenzae
Malignant otitis externaPseudomonas aeruginosa
Acute bronchitisrhinovirus
Nosocomial (hostpital aquired pneumonia)E. coli
Nursing home pneumoniaKlebsiella pneumoniae
ICU pneumoniaPseudomonas aeruginosa
Atypical pneumoniaMycoplasma pneumonia
Community aquired pneumoniaStreptococcus pneumoniae
UTIE. coli
Infection of burn ptsPseudomonas aeruginosa
Bacterial menigitis in the neonateE. coli, Streptococcus agalactia, Listeria monocytogenes
Bacterial meningitis in child and young adultNeisseria meningitidis
Bacterial meningitis in adult and immunocompromisedStreptococcus pneumoniae
Aseptic minigitis in the summerenteroviruses (e.g. echovirus)
Aseptic minigitis in the Winter/Springmumps virus
Acute infections that cause diarrhe in the adultNorwalk virus
Acute infections that cause diarrhea in childrenRotavirus
Acute infections that cause a bloddy diarrheaCampylobacter jejuni
Acute infections that cause a parasitic diarrheaEntamoeba histolytica (in US)
Chronic infections that cause diarrheaGiardia lamblia (in US)
WBCs in the diarrheaCampylobacter jejuni
No WBCs in the diarrheaNorovirus and Rotavirus
Food-associated DiarrheaSalmonella enteritidis (in US)
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Section 24.0 Escherichia Coli

Question Answer
What strain of E. coli secretes heat labile and heat stable toxin? Does it cause a watery or bloody diarrhea?Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC); Watery diarrhea
What strain of E. coli causes traveler's diarrhea? What is another name for traveler's diarrhea?Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC); Montezuma's revenge, Turista
What stains of E. coli cause a bloody diarrhea?Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC); Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)
What strain of E. coli is said to produce a stacked brick pattern in cultures?Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC)
What strain of E. coli secretes shiga-like toxin?Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)
What strain of E. coli occurs almost exclusively in children under 2 years old?Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC)
What strain of E. coli has become part of the normal flora in cattle?E. coli 0157:H7 (EHEC)
What are the five primary stains of E. coli? Which strain does E. coli 0157:H7 belong?(1) Enterotoxigenic (2) Enteroinvasive (3) Enteroaggregative (4) Enterohemorrhagic (5) Enteropathogenic; Enterohemorrhagic
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Section 25.0 Staphylococci

Question Answer
What are the three components of struvite? What two organisms most commonly cause staghorn calculus?(1) Mg (2) NH4 (3) Phosphate; (1) Proteus (2) Staphylococcus saprophyticus
What strain of staphylococcus causes skin infections, food poisoning, and osteomyelitis?S. aureus
Catalase +, Coagulase +
What strain of staphylococcus causes infection of prosthetic heart valves?S. epidermidis
Catalase +, Coagulase -
What strain of staphylococcus causes UTIs and renal calculi?S. saprophyticus
Catalase +, Coagulase -
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Section 25.1 Famous Exotoxins of Staph. Aureus

Question Answer
What staphylococcus exotoxin is known to cause food poisoning? What is the mechanism of action of this toxin? Enterotoxin A-F; Superantigen (binds directly to MHC II proteins)
What staphylococcus exotoxin grows on gauze or paper products (e.g. nasal packing, tampons)? What is the mechanism of action of this toxin?Toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1); Superantigen (binds directly to MHC II proteins)
What staphylococcus exotoxin causes fever, bullae, and a red macular rash (i.e. scalded skin syndrome)?Exfoliatin toxin
What staphylococcus exotoxin causes kin necrosis and hemolytic anemia?Alpha toxin
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Section 26.0 Streptococci

Question Answer
What strain of streptococcus causes pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media?S. pneumoniae
What are the three most common causes of sepsis or meningitis in the neonate?(1) Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) (2) E.coli (3) Listeria monocytogenes
What strain of streptococcus is the source in females for potential contamination of the vulva and infant during delivery?S. agalactiae (GBS)
What strain of streptococcus causes pharyngitis/tonsillitis, impetigo, and scarlet fever?S. pyogenes (GAS)
What strain of streptococcus causes immunologic diseases such as acute rheumatic fever or post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis?S. pyogenes (GAS)
What strain of streptococcus is a marker for colon cancer? What strain causes UTIs and cholecystitis?S. bovis (GDS); Enterococcus faecalis (GDS)
What are the top four etiologies for infection of the biliary tree?(1) E. coli (20 Enterobacter (3) Enterococcus (4) Klebsiella
What strain of staphylococcus is part of the normal flora of the mouth and is known to cause subacute infectious endocarditis?S. mutans
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Section 26.1 Group A Beta-Hemolytic Strep

Question Answer
What antigen is used to determine the "group" of all beta-hemolytic strep species?Lancefield antigen
What is the only member of group A hemolytic strep?S. pyogenes
What are 3 possible diseases of Strep pyogenes?pyogenic disease - purulent lesions
toxigenic disease - fever with hypotension, necrotizing fasciitis, scarlet fever, tissue necrosis
immunologic disease - rheumatic fever or post streptococcal glomerulonephritis
What is the virulence factor that determines the type of group A beta hemolytic strep?M protein
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Section 26.2 Famous Exotoxins of Group A Beta-Hemolytic Strep

Question Answer
What group A beta-hemolytic exotoxin activates plasminogen to dissolve clots?streptokinase
What group A beta-hemolytic exotoxin is a DNAse and decreases thickness of sputum by degrading DNA released by dying neutrophils?streptodornase
What group A beta-hemolytic exotoxin is a major contributor to the development of cellulitis?Hyaluronidase
What group A beta-hemolytic exotoxin causes the rash of scarlet fever? What is the mechanism of action of this toxin?Erythrogenic toxin; Superantigen (binds directly to MHC II proteins)
What disease is associated with strawberry tongue? What is the causative agent?Scarlet fever; S. pyogenes (GAS)
What antibody is used to diagnose acute rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis?Antistreptolysin O (ASO)
What group A beta-hemolytic exotoxin is not activated by oxygen?streptolysin S
What group A beta-hemolytic exotoxin is a super Ag that acts like TSST-1?pyrogenic exotoxin A
What group A beta-hemolytic exotoxin is responsible for necrotizing fasciitis?Exotoxin B
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Section 27.0 Neisseria

Question Answer
What are the two primary bacteria that require chocolate agar for culture?(1) Neisseria (2) Haemophilus influenzae
What is the most common cause of Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome?Neisseria meningitidis
Both species of neisseria have a protease that degrades what immunoglobulin? In what part of the body is this immunoglobulin normally found?IgA; Mucosal surfaces
What strain of neisseria has a particularly rich supply of LPS (endotoxin)?N. meningitidis
What strain of neisseria is encapsulated? What strain is not?N. meningitidis; N. gonorrhoeae
What are the two most common causes of PID?(1) Neisseria gonorrhea (2) Chlamydia trachomatis
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is due to untreated _____.Pelvic inflammatory disease
What is the causes of ophthalmia neonatorum? What is the treatment?N. gonorrhea; Erythromycin ointment
What strain of neisseria is more likely to stay focal? Become systemic?N. gonorrhoeae; N. meningitidis
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Section 28.0 Bacilli

Question Answer
What are the gram + rods?bacillus, clostridium, corynebacterium, listeria (all others are gram -)
Which gram + rods are spore forming?bacillus, clostridium
Which gram + rods are non-spore forming?corynebacterium, listeria
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Section 29.0 Gram-Positive Bacilli

Question Answer
What are the three components of anthrax toxin?(1) Edema factor (2) Protective antigen (3) Lethal factor
What is the most common type of anthrax? What is its characteristic lesion?Cutaneous anthrax; Painless ulcer with a black crust (eschar)
What is the cause of woolsorters disease? What is another name for this disease?Bacillus anthracis; Pulmonary/Inhalation anthrax
What is the drug of choice for anthrax infections?Penicillin
The vaccine for bacillus anthracis (biothrax) carries a high risk for what condition?Guillain-Barre
What are the two bacteria said to have a "Chinese Character" appearance on histology?(1) Corynebacterium diphtheriae (2) Listeria monocytogenes
What bacteria must be cultured on Loeffler's telluride? What is the treatment for infection by this organism?Corynebacterium diphtheriae; Antitoxin + Erythromycin
What bacterium is most commonly found in unpasteurized dairy products (especially cheese); undercooked hot dogs, and processed meats?Listeria monocytogenes
What strain of clostridium causes tetanus? Botulism? Gas gangrene?C. tetani; C. botulinum; C. perfringens
What strain of clostridium causes food poisoning? Pseudomembranous colitis?C. perfringens; C. difficile
What bacteria protects the GI tract and vagina by maintaining an acidic environment? What type of mouth pathology can it cause?Lactobacillus; Dental caries
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Section 30.0 Clostridia

Question Answer
What are the O2 requirements for clostridia?all are obligate anaerobes
What types of foods are affected with c. perfringens food poisoning?improperly stored pre-prepared beef or chicken (especially stews) and Mexican foods/wrapped items
What exotoxin of clostridium perfringens causes gas gangrene? What other bacteria carries this exotoxin?Alpha toxin; Staphylococcus aureus
What are the three most common antibiotics known to promote pseudomembranous colitis?(1) Clindamycin (2) Cephalosporins (3) Ampicillin
What bacteria causes pseudomembranous colitis? What exotoxins are responsible for the condition?Clostridium difficile; Toxins A and B
What condition often follows antibiotic use and is characterized by profuse, foul smelling, watery diarrhea? What is the treatment?Pseudomembranous colitis; Remove antibiotic
What is the most common source for botulism?Food (improperly canned food or vacuum packed meats)
What is the MOA of C. botulinum toxin?blocks ACh release at nmj preventing adequate parasympathetic nervous system function and prevents muscle activation (descending flaccid paralysis)
What exotoxin causes tetanus? What is the responsible organism?Tetanospasmin; Clostridium tetani
What is the MOA of tetanospasmin?blocks release of inhibitory neurotransmitters in spinal cord (glycine and gaba) (descending spastic paralysis)
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Section 31.0 Enterobacteriaceae

Question Answer
Enterobacteriaceae include what organisms?Escherichia, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella, Proteus, Yersinia
What antigen is found on all gram negative bacteria?O antigen
What antigen is found on all bacteria with a flagella? What antigen is found on all encapsulated bacteria?H antigen; K antigen
What does Quellung reaction detect?K antigen (i.e. encapsulated bacteria)
What is the number one facultative anaerobe of the colon?E. coli
What is the number one cause of osteomyelitis in the general population? In sickle cell patients?Staphylococcus aureus; Salmonella
What it is the causative agent of salmonella food infection? Enteric fever?Salmonella enteritidis; Salmonella typhi
What is the drug of choice for infections with salmonella?Ciprofloxacin
What condition is marked by constipation, fever, relative bradycardia, and rose spots on the abdomen? What is the causative agent?Enteric (typhoid) fever; Salmonella typhi
What are the five F's of shigella food poisoning?(1) Fingers (2) Flies (3) Food (4) Feces (5) Fornication, anal
What bacterium causes bacillary dysentery? What exotoxin is associated with the condition?Shigella; Shiga toxin
What is the treatment for shigellosis?Azithromycin OR any fluoroquinolone
What does proteus cause?staghorn renal calculi
What cause of pneumonia presents with currant-jelly sputum? What type of pneumoniae does it cause?Klebsiella pneumoniae; Friedlander's pneumonia (type of lobar pneumonia)
What drug are klebsiella pneumonias treated with?Carbapenem
What organism is most associated with rice-water diarrhea?Vibrio cholerae
What bacterium is found in raw/undercooked seafood and is a major cause of diarrhea in Japan?Vibrio parahaemolyticus
What bacterium is transmitted via domestic animal sources (especially, cattle, chicken, and dogs)? What is the treatment?Campylobacter jejuni; Azithromycin OR erythromycin
What bacterium is associated with a high risk of gastric cancer?Helicobacter pylori
What bacterium splits urea to NH3 and CO2? What test is used to identify its presence?Helicobacter pylori; Urease breath test
What organism of enterobacteriaceae has O, H, and K antigens?E. coli
What organism of enterobacteriaceae has O, H, and V antigens?Salmonella
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Section 32.0 Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods

Question Answer
What is the number one inhabitant of the colon? What does it not have that all other gram (-) organisms do?Bacteroides fragilis; Regular LPS
Factors that favor the growth of bacteroides fragilis, pathologically, include factors that _____.Decrease oxygen availability
-low blood flow to the gut
-E.coli overgrowth
-necrosis
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Section 33.0 Gram Negative Bacilli (Zoonotic)

Question Answer
What is the causative agent of bubonic or pulmonary plaque? What is its reservoir?Yersinia pestis; Rodents (most commonly prairie dogs)
What disease cause skin to turn black due to an accumulation of aged blood under the skin? What is the causative agent? What is the vector?Bubonic plaque; Yersinia pestis; Fleas
What is the drug of choice for yersinia pestis? What is used for prophylaxis of close contacts?Streptomycin; Doxycycline
What is yersinia enterocolitica?very high infectious dose; grows easily in refrigerated, contaminated food; from puppy contaminated water
What bacterium is acquired via dog and car bites? Should you suture any animal bites?Pasteurella multocida; No, it promotes bacterial growth
What is the number one complication of osteomyelitis? What is the causative agent?Brucellosis (undulant fever); Brucella
What bacterium is associated with a normal temperature in the morning, but a fever in the afternoon and evening? How is this usually acquired?Brucella; Ingestion of contaminated dairy products
What is the most common reservoir for francisella tularensis? What is the most common vector?Rabbits; Ticks
What is the treatment for francisella tularensis? What is used for prophylaxis of close contacts?Streptomycin; Doxycycline
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