Hi Yield 109.6 (141-270)

mhewett's version from 2016-07-21 13:37

Section 109.6 Must Know Clinical Anatomy Facts (141-270)

Mycotic aneurysms, those do to septic emboli, usually occur in the _____. Middle or anterior cerebral aa.
Is atrial fibrilation more likely to cause a hemorrhagic or thrombotic CVA? Thrombotic
What two important brain structures would be affected by a hemorrhagic CVA of the lenticulate branch of the middle cerebral artery? (1) Basal ganglia (2) Internal capsule
Hydrocephalus can be classified as communicating or noncommunicating. What type is caused by an inability to absorb CSF in the basilar cisterns or at the pacchionian granulation (as might occurs with meningitis and its inflammation of the meninges)? Communicating
Hydrocephalus can be classified as communicating or noncommunicating. What type is caused by an obstruction in the 4th ventricle not allowing CSF to move from the lateral ventricles to the lumbar subarachnoid space? Noncommunicating
A(n) _____ is a chronic granuloma of the eyelid resulting from infection and obstruction of a meibomian gland or its duct. Chalazion
____ is inflammation of the lid margin, and is due to sebaceous gland infection. Blepharitis
_____ is the term for eversion of the eyelid, while _____ is the term for inversion of the eyelid. Ectropion; Entropion
What glands produce tears? Are tear a sympathetic or parasympathetic response? What nerve provides innervation to these glands? Lacrimal glands; Parasympathetic; Facial n. (CN VII)
_____ is term for when both eyes work together (as they do normally). Conjugate movement
Paralysis of one or more of the occular muscles results in _____, the term for double vision. Diplopia
What are the four parts of the eye used for refraction (for sight)? (1) Cornea (2) Aqueous humor (3) Lens (4) Vitreous body
What is the medical term for nearsightedness? Is the eyeball too long or too short? Does the image focus in front of or behind the retina? Myopia; Too long; In front of the retina
What is the medical term for farsightedness? Is the eyeball too long or too short? Does the image focus in front of or behind the retina? Hyperopia; Too short; Behind the retina
What is the medical term for loss of lens flexibility due to age? Presbyopia
_____ is a benign peripheral degeneration of the cornea. Arcus senilis
The _____ is the area of the retina where the optic nerve fibers exit the eyeball and retinal vessels enter. Blind spot
A(n) _____ is the term used to describe a pupil the does not constrict for light but that does constrict for near vision (i.e. it does accommodate)? Argyll-Robertson pupil
Why do infections or boils in the externay auditory canal cause nausea and vomiting? Because general somatic afferent fibers (i.e. pain. sensation) from this area are carried in the vagus nerve which also carries all the parasympathetic fibers to the GI tract (excluding the distal GI tract)
_____ is a disorder of the inner ear that produces symptoms of loss of balance and tinnitus due to labyrinthal edema and inflammation of the vestibular nerve. Meniere's disease
What is the medical term for a nosebleed? Epistaxis
_____ is characterized by nodule formation, particularly in the areas of the iliac and sacral crests. It may lead to severe incapacitating pain. Nodose lumbago (rheumatism)
The areas of arterial weakness in the spinal arteries are known as the watershed areas of the cord, and are mostly found in the _____ region of the cord. Midthoracic region
What structure prevents the dens from being driven into the cervical portion of the cord or medulla? Transverse ligament
Is the damage in whiplash thought to occur with abrupt flexion or extension? Flexion
At what level does the spinal cord typically end in adults? Neonates? L2; L3
Is the overlap of peripheral nerve more extensive in the limbs or trunk? Trunk, hence a single peripheral nerve is typically sensed more in the limbs
What bone of the forearm is more subject to fracture due to elbow trauma? Ulna
What bone of thee forearm is more subject to fracture from falling on hands? Radius
Most fractures of the wrist involve what bone? Scaphoid
What is the cause of Dupuytren's contracture? Fibrosis of the palmar aponeurosis
What nerve supplies the thenar muscles? Median n.
What is the thumb so commonly injured by minor lacerations of the palm? Because the branch of the median nerve that supplies innervation to the thenar eminence is very shallow
What muscles of the hand are responsible for placing the fingers into the writing position? Lumbricals
What muscles of the hand are responsible for allowing us to type, actively write, or play the piano? Interossei
What muscles of the hand are supplied by the radial nerve? None
As the extensor tendons reach the dorsal aspect of the MCP joint, they expand laterally over the sides of the joints. This expansion of the extensor surface is referred to as the _____. Extensor hood
Shoulder seperation (not dislocation) is a dislocation of the _____ joint, and is a very common injury. Acromioclavicular joint
When passing a needle through the thoracic wall is it better to use the upper or lower border of the rib? Why? Upper border, because the vein, artery, and nerve run at the inferior inner aspect of the rib, and run in that order (VAN)
How many segments does each lung have? How many lobes? Right: 10 segments, 3 lobes; Left: 10 segments, 2 lobes
Which of the coronary arteries usually supplies the SA node? AV node? Right coronary artery; Right coronary artery
What are the two layers of the pericardium? (1) Fibrous layer (2) Serous layer
What are the two layers of the serous layer of the pericardium? Which lines the heart? (1) Visceral pericardium (2) Parietal pericardium; Visceral pericardium
What is the pacemaker of the heart? What artery most commonly supplies it? SA node; Right coronary artery
Are foreign object more likely to enter the right or left bronchus? Why? Right bronchus, because it is larger and has a less sharp angle than the left
Because the superficial epigastric veins at the umbilicus are connected with the portal system, these veins become engorged whenever there is obstruction of the portal system or the inferior vena cava, resulting in _____. Caput medusa
Are bleeding peptic ulcers more common in the posterior or anterior stomach? Perforating ulcers? Posterior; Anterior
What do cancers of the stomach as well as most other GI organs produce metastases in the liver? Because venous drainage is by way of the portal vein
What are the four general conditions associated with hepatomegaly? (1) Carcinoma (2) Heart failure (3) Fatty infiltration (4) Hodgkin's disease
Portal obstruction will result in engorgement of the veins supplying the portal system, namely causing what three conditions? (1) Esophageal varices (2) Hemoorhoids (3) Caput medusae
A(n) _____ is an opening, usually located on the left side, of the diaphragm near the esophageal hiatus that permits the abdominal viscera to ascend into the thorax. Hiatal hernia
What lobe of the prostate is important for BPH? Prostate cancer? Median lobe; Posterior lobe (can often be palpated with DRE)
What are the four important landmarks of the anal canal? (1) Anocutaneous line (2) Hilton's white line (3) Pectin line (4) Anorectal line
What anal canal landmark marks the distal end of the GI tract? Anocutaneous line
What anal canal landmark marks the interval between the external and internal sphincters? Hilton's white line
What anal canal landmark is used to classify internal and external hemorrhoids? Pectinate line
What anal canal landmark marks the beginning of the anal canal? Anorectal line
What type of epithelium would you expect to find above the pectinate line? Below the pectinate line? Columnar/cuboidal epithelium; Stratified epithelium
Innervation above the pectinate line is carried afferently through fibers of the _____, while innervation below the pectinate line is via the _____. Pelvis plexus; Pudendal n.
Which has voluntary control, the internal or external anal sphincter? External anal sphincter
When do females develop ovarian follicles? When the female is an embryo herself
When does the hypothalamus start producing GnRH? Puberty
What hormone causes arrested oocytes to develop? FSH
What stage of meiosis are ooyctes arrest in before being stimulated by FSH? Dictyotene
Which produces androstenedione when stimulated, the theca interna or externa? What hormone stimulates this activity? Theca interna; LH
What type of cells convert androstenedione to estrogen? What hormone stimulates this activity? Granulosa cells; FSH
The oocyte itself is surrounded by a protein=polysaccharide layer termed the _____; closely surrounding this are the follicular cells that have developed to form a layer called the _____. Zona pellucida; Corona radiata
What are the four parts of the fallopian tube? In what part does fertilization usually occur? (1) Infundibulum (2) Ampulla (3) Isthmus (4) Interstitial (intramural) portion; Ampulla
The testis is surrounded by a thick connective tissue capsule known as the _____. Tubica albuginea
What type of cells are contained within the stroma of the testis? Leydig cells
What type of cells produce testosterone in the testis? What hormone stimulates this activity? Leydig cells; LH
What type of cells support, protect, and nurture sex cells in males? Sertoli cells
What type of cells in the testis produce androgen-binding protein, which serves to concentrate testosterone for spermatogenesis? What hormone stimulates this activity? Sertoli cells; FSH
Bile from the gallbladder passes through the _____ duct and joins with the _____ duct from the liver to form the _____ duct. Cystic duct; Hepatic duct; Common bile duct
What are the retroperitoneal structures? MNEMONIC: SAD PUCKER (1) Suprerenal/Adrenal gland (2) Aorta (3) Inferior vena cava (4) Duodenum (5) Pancrease (not including tail) (6) Ureters (7) Colon (ascending and descending) (8) Kidneys (9) Esophagus (lower 2/3) (10) Rectum (upper 2/3)
What part of the pancreas is not retroperitoneal? Tail of the pancreas
A(n) _____ hernia follows the course of the testes during development (therefore, passes through the inguinal canal via the internal opening). Indirect inguinal hernia
A(n) _____ hernia passes through Hesselbach's triangle. Direct inguinal hernia
What are the three layers found in most blood vessels? What type of blood vessel is the exception? (1) Tunica intima (2) Tunia media (3) Tunica adventitia; Cappillaries
Is the tunica media thicker in arteries or veins? Arteries