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HI Yield 109.6 (1-140)

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mhewett's version from 2016-07-20 19:27

Section 109.6 Must Know Clinical Anatomy Facts (1-140)

_____ are areas in which there are no capillaries betwwen the arterioles and venules, allowing for direct connection between those arterioles and venules. They are often considered pathologic; although, they are normally present in some parts of the body where they conserve body heat. AV shunts
_____ are wider and more irregular than capillaries, and they take the place of capillaries in the liver, spleen, red bone marrow, and other locations throughout the body. Their walls consist largerly of phagocytic cells. Sinusoids
What is the name for a fracture at the distal end of the radius usually due to falling on an outstretched hand? Colles' fracture
What are the four muscles of the rotator cuff? (1) Supraspinatus m. (2) Infraspinatus m. (3) Teres minor (4) Subscapularis m.
The mammary gland is a modified _____ gland. Sweat gland
Breast cancers that cause dimpling of the overlying skin do so by shortening _____. Breast cancers that cause nipple retraction do so by shortening _____. Cooper's ligaments (breast suspensory ligaments); Lactiferous ducts
A radical mastectomy is the removal of the breast, pectoralis major and minor muscles, axillary lymph nodes and fascia, and part of the thoracic wall. What is removed in a modified radical mastectomy? Breast and axillary lymph nodes
What nerve innervates the pectoralis minor muscle? Pectoralis major? Medial pectoral n.; Medial and lateral pectoral n.
What are the four components of the carpel tunnel? (1) Median n. (2) Tendons of the flexor pollicis longus (3) Flexor digitorum profundus m. (4) Flexor digitorum superficialis m.
Do the dorsal interossei abduct or adduct the finger? Palmar interossei? Abduct; Adduct
Do the lumbricals flex or extend the PIP joint? MCP joint? DIP joint? Extend; Flex; Extend
The cell bodies of the general somatic and general visceral afferents are in the _____. Dorsal root ganglia
The cell bodies of the general somatic efferents are in the _____. Anterior horn of the spinal cord
The cell bodies of the sympathetic postganglionic general visceral efferents are in the _____. Sympathetic chain ganglia
At the inferior border of the teres major muscle the axially artery becomes the _____. Brachial a.
In a fracture of the clavicle, does the proximal segment move superior or inferior? Why? Superior; Pull of the sternocleidomastoid m.
In a fracture of the clavicle, does the distal segment move superior or inferior? Why? Inferior, Pull of the deltoid m. and gravity
What type of fracture is usually produced by a fall on the back of the hand while the wrist is flexed? Smith's (Reverse colles's) fracture
What nerve is most commonly injured by an inferior dislocation of the humerus? What artery is most commonly injured by an inferior dislocation of the humerus? Axiallry n.; Posterior humeral circumflex a.
Why does referred pain to the should often an indication of involvement of the phrenic nerve or diaphragm? Because the supraclavicular n. (C3-4) (supplies sensory fibers to the shoulder) has the same origin as the phrenic nerve (C3-5)
What is the cause of carpel tunnel syndrome? Compression of the median n.
What nerve is most commonly injured by a fracture of the middle shaft of the humerus? What is the most common clinical presentation? Radial n.; Wrist drop
What nerve is most commonly injured by a fracture of the medial epicondyle? What is the most common clinical presentation? Ulnar n.; Claw hand
What nerve is most commonly injured by a supracondylar injury? What is the most common clinical presentation? Median n.; Ape hand
Which of the knee ligaments prevents knee hyperflexion? Hyperextension? PCL; ACL
Does the ACL prevent anterior or posterior movement of the tibia? PCL? Anterior; Posterior
Why does damage to the medial (tibial) collateral ligament invariably cause damage to the medial meniscus? Because the medial (tibial) collateral ligament is firmly attached to the medial meniscus
What nerve roots compose the lumbar plexus? Sacral plexus? T12-L4; L4-S3
The obturatory nerve arises from what plexus? What nerve roots compose the obturator nerve? Lumbar plexus; L3-4
The femoral nerve arises from what plexus? What nerve roots compose the femoral nerve? Lumbar plexus; L2-4
The superior gluteal nerve arises from what plexus? What nerve roots compose the superior gluteal nerve? Sacral plexus; L4-S1
The inferior gluteal nerve arises from what plexus? What nerve roots compose the inferior gluteal nerve? Sacral plexus; L5-S2
The sciatic nerve arises from what plexus? What nerve roots compose the sciatic nerve? Sacral plexus; L4-S3
What are the two divisions of the sciatic nerve? (1) Tibial n. (2) Common peroneal (fibular) n.
From what artery does the obturatory artery arise from? Internal iliac a.
Distal to the inguinal ligament the femoral artery becomes the _____. External iliac a.
What nerve root is associated with the patellar reflex? What nerve root is associated with the achilles reflex? L4; S1
What type of hernia passes through the femoral ring (i.e. lateral to the pubic tubercle and deep to the inguinal ligament)? Is it more common in men or women? Femoral hernia; Women
Is the waddling gait characterized by falling of the pelvis to the affected or unaffected side? What muscle is associated with the waddling gait? Unaffected side; Gluteus medius m. (also called the gluteal gait)
Does congenital dislocation of the hip cause the limb to be longer or shorter? Abducted or adducted? Medially or laterally rotated? Shorter; Adducted; Medially rotated
What traumatic injury often presets with bleeding from the ear? Basilar skull fracture
What is Battle's sign? What is it indicative of? A discoloration of the skin along the course of the posterior auricular artery; Basilar skull fracture
What are the five layers of the scalp? (1) Skin (2) Connective tissue (3) Aponeurosis (4) Loose areolar connective tissue (5) Pericranium MNEMONIC: SCALP
Enlarged supraclavicular nodes on the left side are frequently associated with _____. Stomach and/or colon cancer
Damage to the facial nerve or its branches produces various degrees of weakness and/or paralysis of facial muscles, and is referred to as _____. Bell's palsy
Paralysis of the face indicates that the facial nerve itself has been damaged somewhere along its course. If forehead movement is maintained, where is the damage? Cerebral cortex
What muscles serve to close the jaw? (1) Masseter m. (2) Medial pterygoid m. (3) Temporalis m.
What muscles serve to open the jaw? (1) Lateral pterygoid m. (2) Suprahyoid m. (3) Infrahyoid m.
Which of the muscles of mastication protrudes the jaw? Retracts the jaw? Lateral pterygoid m.; Temporalis m.
The _____ is a nerve that originates from the taste buds in the anterior 2/3 of the tongue, runs through the middle ear, and carries taste messages to the facial nerve. Chorda tympani n.
_____ is a condition the causes excruciating pain along course of the trigeminal nerve. Trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux)
What nerve is most commonly affected by herpes zoster infections? Trigeminal n. (CN V)
What are the four structures contained in the carotid sheath? (1) Common carotid a. (2) Internal carotid a. (3) Internal jugular v. (4) Vagus n.
Is jugular venous distension seen in the internal or external jugular veins? External jugular vv.
The _____ is a slightly dilated area in the proximal internal carotid artery; it is an arterial blood pressure-regulating area. Carotid sinus
What two cranial nerves innervate the carotid sinus and body? (1) Glossopharyngeal n. (CN IX) (primary innervation) (2) Vagus n. (supplemental innervation)
The _____ is a small, ovoid tissue at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. It is a chemoreceptor that is sensitive for carbon dixoide or decreased oxygen. Carotid body
_____ is due to narrowing of the left subclavian artery near its origin. To compensate for decreased blood flow to the arm, blood flows from the right to the left vertebral artery and then into the left subclavian artery. This leads to less blood flow to the brain, resulting in giddiness, syncope, and left are ischemia. Subclavian steal syndrome
Is the brachiocephalic trunk of the left or right side of the thorax? What two vessels are formed from the bifurcation of the brachiocephalic trunk? Right; (1) Right common caroitd a. (2) Right subclavian a.
What is the first branch of the subclavian artery? Second branch? Third branch? Vertebral artery; Thyrocervical trunk; Costocervical trunk
What two muscles do the brachial plexus and subclavian artery pass between? (1) Anterior scalene m. (2) Middle scalene m.
Do the subclavian vein pass interior or superior the the anterior scalene muslce? Anterior (i.e. its very shallow)
Any pathologic enlargement of the thyroid gland is known as a _____. Goiter
What are the two most common complications of thyroidectomy? (1) Injury to the recurrent laryngeal n. (2) Accidental removal of the parathyroid glands
What muscles contribute to the formation of the supraplueal membrane, otherwise known as Sibson's fascia? Scalene mm.
A patient presents with unilateral damage to the hypoglossal nerve. When asked to stick his tongue out, will it deviate towards or away from the damaged side? What muscles lack of function is responsible for this deviation? Towards; Genioglossus m.
Sensitive teeth results from the exposure of the tooth _____. Dentin (normally, enamel covers the dentin)
What cranial nerve might be affected thrombophlebitis or inflammation of the cavernous sinuses? CNs III, IV, VI, V (opthalmic and maxillary divisions)
What is the site used to obtain CSF samples? Cisterna magna
What type of intracranial hemorrhage often presents in a patient who is knocked unconscious (brief concussion) at injury, then awakens and has a lucid period for several hours, then slips into a coma as the hemorrhage enlarges? Epidural hemorrhage
What type of intracranial hemorrhage is known to cause third nerve palsy, resulting in an ipsilateral dilated, fixed pupil due to the hematoma's pressure on the nerve? Epidural hemorrhage
Is the blood from an epidural hemorrhage usually from an arterial or venous source? Subdural hemorrhage? Arterial; Venous
What type of intracranial hemorrhage are alcoholics most at risk for? Subdual hemorrhage
What type of intracranial hemorrhage often presents 3-6 weeks after the initial injury with headache, confusion, somnolence, and sometimes coma? Subdual hemorrhage
What is the most common cause of a nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage? Berry aneurysm rupture
What type of intracranial hemorrhage often presents with stiff neck, headache, and loss of consciousness? Subarachnoid hemorrhage
What type of vision loss would you expect from a pituitary gland tumor pushing on the optic chiasm? Bitemporal hemianopsia
What vessel would most likely be occluded by a growing pituitary tumor? Internal carotid a.
A single lesion at the _____ can cause a complete unilateral motor and sensory deficit. Internal capsule
Damage to the _____ may result in disturbances of voluntary movement. Cerebellum
Most congenital aneurysms occur in the _____. Circle of Willis
Bleeding into the _____ space is often associated with patients reporting the worst headaches of their life. Subarachnoid space