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Hi Yield 109.4 - 109.5.9

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mhewett's version from 2016-07-20 19:22

Section 109.4 GI Anatomy

What structure of the small intestine serves to increase the surface area for absorption as nutrients pass through the small bowel? Villi
Microvilli, found on the villi of the small intestine, are also known as the _____. Brush border
What type of epithelium lines the small and large intestine? Columnar epithelium
The cells that line the bowel are known as _____. Enterocytes (absorptive cells)
In the small intestine, lipids and cholesterol are dissolved in _____. These serve to carry the lipids to the microvilli where they can be easily transported into enterocytes. Bile acid micelles
Once in enterocytes, lipids are packed into _____. These then pass into the lymph of the lacteals, the smallest vessels of the lymphatic system. Chylomicrons
How are most carbohydrates and proteins absorbed by enteroyctes? Na co-transport
What type of fatty acids can diffuse into enterocytes via facilitated diffusion (i.e. without the help of Na co-transport)? Short and medium chain fatty acids
What type of fatty acid is found in cow and goats milk? Short chain fatty acids
What type of fatty acid is found in human milk, coconut oil, and palm kernel oil? Medium chain fatty acids
What type of immunoglobulin lines the intestinal lumen? IgA
What part of the small intestine houses Peyer's patches (found in children and yound adults)? What are Peyer's patches? Ileum; Aggregations of lymphoid nodules
What is the name for the glands that secrete a variety of enzymes, including sucrose, maltase, and enteropeptidase, into the intestinal lumen? Crypts of Lieberkuhn
What type of cells secret mucin (which becomes mucus when dissolved in water)? Would you expect to find more in the small intestine or large intestine? Goblet cells; Large intestine
What are the three components of the intestinal mucosa? (1) Epithelium (2) Lamina propria (3) Muscularis mucosae
What are the three components of the submucosa? (1) Lymphatics (2) Blood vessels (3) Submucosal plexus (meissner's plexus)
Does meissner's plexus provide sympathetic or parasympathetic innervation to the intestines? Parasympathetic
What are the two layers of the muscularis externa? (1) Circular layer (2) Longitudinal layer
What plexus, associated with the intestines, promotes peristalsis? Does it provide sympathetic or parasympathetic innervation to the intestines? Auerbach's plexus (myenteric plexus); Parasympathetic
_____ is comprised of sheets of connective tissue which bind the loops of bowel together. Mesentery
Would you expect to find villi in the small intestine? Large intestine? Yes; No
Where is Auerbach's plexus located? Between the longitudinal and circular layer of the muscularis externa in the intestines (promotes peristalsis)

Section 109.5.1-.4 Skeletal Muscle Anatomy (Tongue, Jaw, Larynx, Neck)

What are the four main muscles of the tongue? (1) Genioglossus m. (2) Hypoglossus m. (3) Palatoglossus m. (4) Styloglossus m.
What is the primary innervation to the muscles of the tongue? What muscle does not have this innervation? What is this muscles innervation? CN XII; Palatoglossus m.; CN X
A patient presents with unilateral damage to the hypoglossal nerve. When asked to stick his tongue out, will it deviate towards or away from the damaged side? Towards
What muscle of the tongue is used to stick out the tongue? What is its innervation? Genioglossus; CN XII
What are the four main muscles of mastication (i.e. chewing)? (1) Masseter m. (2) Medial pterygoid m. (3) Lateral pterygoid m. (4) Temporalis m.
What nerve innervates the muscles of mastication (i.e. chewing)? CN V (V3, mandibular n.)
What are the three branches of the trigeminal nerve (i.e. CN V)? (V1) Opthalmic n. (V2) Maxillary n. (V3) Mandibular n.
Which of the pterygoids opens the mouth? Closes the mouth? Lateral pterygoid m.; Medial pterygoid m.
Which of the muscles of mastication protrudes the jaw? Retracts the jaw? Lateral pterygoid m.; Temporalis m.
Are most of the muscles of mastication responsible for opening or closing the mouth? What is the exception? Closing; Lateral pterygoid (opens mouth)
What muscles are ususally the first to develop severe, unrelenting painful spasms and tetany in tetanus? Muscles of mastication (causes lockjaw)
What are the four main muscles of the larynx? (1) Cricothyroid m. (2) Lateral cricoarytenoid m. (3) Posterior cricoarytenoid m. (4) Thyroarytenoid m.
What is the primary innervation to the muscles of the larynx? What muscle does not have this innervation? What is this muscles innervation? Recurrent laryngeal nerve; Cricothyroid m.; Superior laryngeal nerve
What muscle of the larynx tenses the vocal cords? Relaxes the vocal cords? Cricothyroid m.; Thyroarytenoid m.
What muscle of the larynx closes the glottis? Opens the glottis? Lateral cricoarytenoid m.; Posterior cricoarytenoid m.
The superior laryngeal nerve is a branch of what nerve? What is the recurrent laryngeal nerve a branch of? Vagus n. (CNX); Vagus n. (CNX);
What nerve provides motor control to the cricothyroid and sensation above the glottis? Superior laryngeal n.
What nerve provides motor control to all the muscles of the larynx (except the cricothyroid) and sensation below the glottis? Recurrent laryngeal n.
The left recurrent laryngeal nerve branches off from the vagus, and then loops under the _____ before ascending. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve branches off from the vagus, and then loops under the _____ before ascending. Aortic arch; Subclavian artery
What is the most common outcome of unilateral dysfunction of the recurrent laryngeal nerve? What is the outcome of bilateral damage? Changes in voice (i.e. hoarseness); Aphonia (inability to produce sound
What nerve innervates the sternocleidomastoid muscle? Accessory n. (CN XI)
What type of motion does unilateral contraction of the scalene muscles cause? Bilateral contraction? Ipsilateral sidebending of the neck; Neck flexion and forced inspiration
What type of motion does unilateral contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle cause? Bilateral contraction? Ipsilateral sidebending of the neck; Neck flexion and forced inspiration
Generally, where would you find the scalene muscles? Lateral neck
Generally, where would you find the sternocleidomastoid muscle? Lateral neck
What two lateral neck muscles attach to and elevate the first rib? (1) Anterior scalene m. (2) Middle scalene m.
What lateral neck muscle attaches to and elevates the second rib? Posterior scalene m.

Section 109.5.5-.7 Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Shoulder, Elbow, Finger, Wrist

What are the four muscles of the rotator cuff? (1) Supraspinatus m. (2) Infraspinatus m. (3) Teres minor (4) Subscapularis m.
What joint do the muscles of the rototor cuff stabilize? Glenohumeral joint
What are the three main muscles of upper body posture maintenance? (1) Rhomboid mm. (2) Levator scapular m. (3) Trapezius m.
What two muscles act synergistically in arm abduction? (1) Supraspinatus m. (2) Deltoid m.
What muscle is the primary abductor of the arm to about 15 degress? What nerve innervates it? Supraspinatus m.; Suprascapular n.
What muscle is the primary abductor of the arm after about 30 degrees? What nerve innervates it? Deltoid m.; Axillary n. (CN XI)
Does the contribution of the supraspinatus muscle decrease, increase or stay the same with increasing abduction? How about the deltoid? Decrease; Increase
What rotator cuff muscle is most commonly torn? Supraspinatus m.
What shoulder injury is common to person's who do a lot of overhead work or movement (e.g. baseball pitchers, swimmers, tennis players)? Supraspinatus tendonitis
Is extreme pain during the drop arm test, or refusal to do it due to pain, more indicative of supraspinatus tendonitis or tear? Supraspinatus tendonitis
What muscle is often the cause of a winged the scapula? What nerve innervates it? Serratus anterior m.; Long thoracic n.
What two muscles are most responsible for arm flexion? (1) Deltoid m. (2) Pectoralis major m.
What two muscles are most responsible for arm extension? (1) Deltoid m. (2) Pectoralis major m.
What is the primary motion of the infraspinatus muscle? What nerve innervates it? External rotation of arm; Suprascapular n.
What is the primary motions of the teres minor muscle? What nerve innervates it? External rotation of arm; Axillary n. (CN XI)
What is the primary motion of the subscapularis muscle? What nerve innervates it? Internal rotation of arm; Subscapular n.
What muscle causes adduction of the arm? What nerve innervates it? Pectoralis major m.; Pectoral n.
Which of the following is not a motion of the pectoralis major muscle? A) Arm internal rotation B) Arm Adduction C) Arm flexion D) Arm abduction E) Arm extension D) Arm abduction
What is the primary motions of the teres major muscle? What nerve innervates it? Internal rotation of arm; Lower subscapular n.
What nerve innervates the levator scapulae muscle? Pectoralis minor muscle? Dorsal scapular n.; Medial pectoral n.
What nerve innervates the rhomboid major and minor muscles? Trapezium muscle? Dorsal scapular n.; Axillary n. (CN XI)
What muscle is the primary flexor of the forearm? What nerve innervates it? Brachialis m.; Musculocutaneous n.
What muscle is the primary extensor of the forearm? What nerve innervates it? Triceps m.; Radial n.
What are the two primary supinators of the forearm? What nerve innervates each of them? (1) Biceps m.; Musculocutaneous n. (2) Supinator m.; Radial n.
What are the two primary pronators of the forearm? What nerve innervates each of them? (1) Pronator teres m.; Median n. (2) Pronator quadratus m.; Median n.
What are the four muscles known to cause forearm flexion? (1) Biceps m. (2) Brachialis m. (3) Brachioradialis m. (4) Pronator teres m.
What nerve innervates brachioradialis? Radial n.
What nerve innervates most of the extensors of the hand? Radial n.
What nerve innervates most of the flexors of the hand? What is the exception? What is its innervation? Median n.; Flexor carpi ulnaris; Ulnar n.
What muscle flexes and abducts the wrist? What is its innervation? Flexor carpi radialis; Median n.
What muscle flexes and adducts the wrist? What is its innervation? Flexor carpi ulnaris; Ulnar n.
What muscle flexes the thumb at the interphalangeal joint? What is its innervation? Flexor pollicis longus; Median n.
What muscle, known to flex the wrist, has innervation from both the ulnar and median nerve? Flexor digitorum profundus m.

Section 109.5.8-.9 Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Hip, Foot, Ankle

What four muscles compose the quadriceps? (1) Rectus femoris m. (2) Vastus lateralis m. (3) Vastus medialis m. (4) Vastus intermedius m.
What group of muscles plays a critical role in stabilizing the patella? What is their innervation? Quadriceps; Femoral n.
What is the largest branch of the lumbar plexus? What nerve roots is it composed of? Femoral n.; L2-4
What two muscles compose the iliopsoas muscle? What is their innervation? (1) Psoas major m. (2) Iliacus m.; Femoral n.
What vertebra does that iliopsoas muscle attach to? T12-L5
What condition often presents with hip pain and occurs after prolonged or repeated hip flexion? Psoas syndrome
What is the largest nerve in the body? What nerve roots is it composed of? Sciatic n.; L4-S3
What nerve is often compressed by a posterior fibular head? What are three clinical manifestations of this condition? Peroneal n.; (1) Foot drop (2) Weakened dorsiflexion (3) Sensory disturbances on the dorsal foot
What three muscles compose the hamstrings? What is their main innervation? (1) Biceps femoris m. (2) Semimembranosus m. (3) Semitendinosus m.; Tibial n.
What division of the sciatic nerve innervates the hamstrings? Which of the hamstring muscles is not innervated by this division? Tibial division; Short head of the biceps femoris
What is the primary motion of the hamstrings? Hip extension
Which of the hamstring muscles abduct the thigh? Adduct the thigh? Abduct: Semimembranosus m., Semitendinosus m.; Adduct: Biceps femoris m.
What muscle is the primary hip extensor? What is its innervation? Gluteus maximus m.; Inferior gluteal n.
What is the primary motion of the gluteus maximus muscle? Hip extension
What is the primary motion of the gluteus medius and minimis muscles? What is their innervation? Thigh adduction; Superior gluteal n.
What is the primary motion of the adductor magnus and minimus muscles? What is their main innervation? Thigh adduction; Obturator n.
What is the primary knee extensor? What is its innervation? Quadriceps; Femoral n.
What is the primary hip flexor? Iliopsoas m; Femoral n.
What are the three components for O'Donahue's triad? What is another name for this triad? What type of injury might cause this? (1) ACL tear (2) MCL tear (3) Medial meniscus tear; Terrible triad; Stuck on lateral side of knee
What are the three components for Shelbourne's triad? What age group is this most common in? (1) ACL tear (2) MCL tear (3) Lateral meniscus tear; Adolescents and pre-adolescents
What two muscles compose the calf? What is their innervation? (1) Gastrocnemius m. (2) Soleus m.; Tibial n.
A spasm of the _____ is often referred to as a charley horse. Gastrocnemius m.
What muscle stongly supports the medial arch of the foot? What condition is cause by damage to this muscle? Tibialis posterior; Pes planus (flat foot)
What muscle stongly supports the transverse arch of the foot? What is its innervation? Peroneus longus m.; Common peroneal n.
What is the common clinical manifestation of injury to the deep peroneal nerve? Foot drop (loss of dorsiflexion)
What is the common clinical manifestation of injury to the common peroneal nerve? (1) Foot drop (2) Sensory disturbances on the dorsal foot and leg
What is the common clinical manifestation of injury to the tibial nerve? Loss of plantar flexion of foot and toes
What three motions cause pronation of the foot/ankle? (1) Dorsiflexion (2) Eversion (3) Abduction
What three motions cause suppination of the foot/ankle? (1) Plantar flexion (2) Inversion (3) Adduction
What are the four muscle of the foot and ankle that promote dorsiflexion? What is their innervation? (1) Peroneus teritus m. (2) Tibialis anterior m. (3) Extensor hallucis longus m. (4) Extensor digitorum longus m.; Deep peroneal n.