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Hi Yield 103 - 105.2

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mhewett's version from 2016-07-19 14:33

Section 103 Embryology and Fetal Development

What are the four parts of the fallopian tube? In what part does fertilization usually occur? (1) Infundibulum (2) Ampulla (3) Isthmus (4) Interstitial (intramural) portion; Ampulla
When the nuclei of the ovum and sperm fuse to to a single nucleus a(n) _____ is formed. Zygote
After fertilization, the zygote quickly starts to divide still inside the zona pellucida. The ball of cells formed is called the _____. Morula
After fertilization, the morula secretes fluid between cells, forming a cavity of fluid. A morula with a cavity of fluid is known as a(n) _____. Blastocyst
As fluid increases in the blastocystic cavity, it divides the cells into _____ and _____. Trophoblasts, Embryoblasts
Do trophoblasts form from the inner or outer cell mass of the blastocyst? Embryoblasts? Outet; Inner
How many days following fertilization pass before the blastocyst begins to implant of the endometrium? 7 days
After implantation, trophoblast cells in the blastocyst divide and differentiate into _____ and _____. Cytotrophoblast, Syncytiotrophoblast
After implantation, embryoblast cells in the blastocyst divide and differentiate into _____ and _____. Epiblasts, Hypoblasts
Do epiblasts form from the amniotic cavity or primitive yolk sac? Hypoblasts? Amniotic cavity, Primitive yolk sac
The trophoblast proliferates into two layers, the cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast. Which of these layers invades the endometrium and establishes the uteroplacental circulation? Syncytiotrophoblast
What are the two embryologic structures that compose the chorion? (1) Extraembryonic somatic mesoderm (2) Trophoblast
The embryoblast differentiates into two cells types, the epiblasts and hypoblasts. Which of these forms the primitive streak? Epiblasts
Which is involved with organ development, the extraembryonic or intraembryonic mesoderm? Intraembryonic mesoderm
What are the three fetal shunts used to bypass blood from the non-functional fetal lungs? (1) Foramen ovale (2) Ductus arteriosus (3) Ductus venosus
What are the structures that compose the umbilical cord? 2 arteries, 1 vein
In the umbilical cord, what vessel serves to deliver deoxygenated blood to the placenta? Umbilical artery
In the umbilical cord, what vessel serves to deliver oxygenated blood from the placenta? Umbilical vein
What structure in the fetus is responsible for the exchange of gases and liquid waste? Allantois
What structure in the fetus connects the bladder to the allantois? What might you see in a patient if this structure does not degenerate? Urachus; Urination through the umbilicus
What is the normal adult remnant of the ductus arteriosus? The umbilical arteries? The urachus? Ligamentum arteriosum; Medial umbilical ligament; Median umbilical ligament
What is the normal adult remnant of the ductus venosus? The umbilical vein? The foramen ovale? Ligamentum venosum; Ligamentum teres hepatis (round ligament); Fossa ovalis
What structure in the fetus connects the yolk sac to the midhut? What might you see in a patient if this structure does not degenerate? Yolk stalk; Meckel's diverticulum
Which of the three fetal shunts allows blood to travel from the right atrium to the left atrium? Foramen ovale
Which of the three fetal shunts connects the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch? Ductus arteriosus
Which of the three fetal shunts allows blood from the umbilical vein to pass directly the inferior vena cava? Ductus venosus
What percent of people have Meckel's diverticulum? About how long is it? Where does it occur? 2%, 2 cm, 2 feet from the ileocecal junction (in the ileum)
What germ layer forms the neural tube and neural crest? Ectoderm
What germ layer forms the placodes? Somites? Ectoderm; Mesoderm
What germ layer forms muscle (smooth, cardiac, smooth)? The CNS? The structures of the eye? Mesoderm; Ectoderm; Ectoderm
What germ layer forms the pituitary (anterior, posterior)? Hepatocytes? Connective tissue? Ectoderm; Endoderm; Mesoderm
What germ layer forms the epithelial lining of the GI and urogenital tract? The endothelial cells? The epidermis? Endoderm; Mesoderm; Ectoderm

Section 104 Eye

What part of the eye makes up the transparent tissue over the central area of the anterior eye? Cornea
What part of the eye constitutes the "white of the eyes?" Sclera
What part of the eye provides nutrition to the retina? Choroid
What part of the eye produces aqueous humor? Ciliary body
What part of the eye allows the lens to bulge or "plump up" for accommodation? Ciliary muscle
What part of the eye is heavily pigmented, and is what determines the "color" of our eyes? Iris
What is the name for the central opening of the iris? Pupil
What muscle, contrained within the iris, causes mydriasis? Miosis? Dilator pupillae muscles; Sphincter pupillae muscles
What part of the eye contains the optic disk? Retina
What is the blind spot? Area of the optic disk where nerve fibers leave the eyeball. It has no photoreceptors and as a result is insensitive to light (i.e. no vision)
What is the name for the region of the eye with the most acute vision? In what part of the eye would this be found? Fovea centralis; Macula
What part of the eye receives the aqueous humor from the ciliary bodies? Posterior chamber
For aqueous humor to reach the anterior chamber from the posterior chamber, what structure must it pass through? Pupil
What part of the eye is located between the lens and the optic disk? Vitreous chamber
What part of the eye makes up the back of the eye, internally (where the retina and optic disk are)? Fundus
What are the four parts of the eye used for refraction (for sight)? (1) Cornea (2) Aqueous humor (3) Lens (4) Vitreous body
What is the medical term for nearsightedness? Is the eyeball too long or too short? Myopia; Too long
What is the medical term for farsightedness? Is the eyeball too long or too short? Hyperopia; Too short
What is the medical term for loss of lens flexibility due to age? Presbyopia
Does macular degeneration cause loss of central or peripheral vision? Central vision
What is the medical term for increased intraocular tension/pressure? Glaucoma
What medical term for a loss opacity to the lens? Cataracts
What sugar, derived from glucose, cannot diffuse out of the eye and when present in the eye accumulates on the lens causing cataracts? Sorbitol
Which of the extraocular muscles makes the pupil go up and slightly medially? What is its innervation? Superior rectus; Oculomotor n. (CNIII)
Which of the extraocular muscles makes the pupil go down and slightly lateral? What is its innervation? Inferior rectus; Oculomotor n. (CNIII)
Which of the extraocular muscles makes the pupil move medially? What is its innervation? Medial rectus; Oculomotor n. (CNIII)
Which of the extrocular muscles makes the pupil laterally? What is its innervation? Lateral rectus; Abducens n. (CNVI)
Which of the extrocular muscles makes the pupil go down and laterally? What is its innervation? Superior oblique; Trochlear n. (CNIV)
Which of the extrocular muscles makes the pupil go up and laterally? What is its innervation? Inferior oblique; Oculomotor n. (CNIII)
Which of the extrocular muscles raises the upper eyelid? What is its innervation? Levator palpebrae; Oculomotor n. (CNIII)

Section 105.1 Neuro Vasculature

What are the two divisions of the common carotid artery? Which division enters the brain? (1) Internal carotid artery (2) External carotid artery; Internal carotid artery
What is the first branch of the internal carotid artery? What would be the result of an obstruction? Opthalmic artery; Monocular blindness in the eye affected
What artery supplies the retina? What is it a branch of? Opthalmic artery; Internal carotid artery
What branch of the internal carotid artery joins the posterior cerebral artery? Posterior communicating artery
What artery supplies the leg and foot areas of the motor and sensory cortex? What is it a branch of? Anterior cerebral artery; Internal carotid artery
What artery supplies the medial frontal and parietal lobes? What would be the result of an obstruction? Anterior cerebral artery; Motor and/or sensory deficits of the lower extremity on the contralateral side of the body
What artery supplies the anterior portion of the internal capsule? Posterio portion? Anterior cerebral artery; Middle cerebral artery
What is the most common location for a berry aneurysm? Anterior communicating artery
What artery supplies the lateral frontal and parietal lobes? What would be the result of an obstruction? Middle cerebral artery; Motor and/or sensory deficits of the contralateral trunk, arm, or ipsilateral face
What artery supplies broca's or wernicke's area? What is it a branch of? Middle cerebral artery; Internal carotid artery
What two vessels fuse to form the basilar artery? What are they a branch of? (1) Left vertebral artery (2) Right vertebral artery; Subclavian artery
What artery supplies the corticospinal tracts? What is it a branch of? Pontine arteries; Basilar artery
What artery supplies the midbrain and occipial lobe? What is it a branch of? Posterior cerebral artery; Basilary artery
What artery and its branches supply most of the brainstem and cerebellum? Basilar artery
What artery supplies the amygdala and globus pallidus? What is it a branch of? Anterior choridal artery; Internal carotid artery
What artery supplies the dorsolateral medulla and inferior surface of the cerebellum? What is it a branch of? Posterior inferior cerebellar artery; Vertebral artery
What artery supplies the superior cerebllar surface as well as the lateral and rostral pons? What is it a branch of? Superior cerebellar artery; Basilar artery
What artery supplies the trigeminal nucleus and tract as well as the vestibular and cochlear nuclei? What is it a branch of? Labyrinthine artery; Anterior inferior cerebellar artery
What branch of the basilar artery supplies the midbrain? Posterior cerebral artery
What branch of the basilar artery supplies the lateral inferior pons? What is it a branch of? Anterior inferior cerebellar artery; Basilar artery
What branch of the basilar artery supplies the lateral superior pons? What is it a branch of? Superior cerebellar artery; Basilar artery
What branch of the vertebral artery supplies the medial medulla? What is it a branch of? Anterior spinal artery; Vertebral artery
What artery supplies the medulla? Vertebral artery
What branch of the vertebral artery supplies the lateral medulla? What is it a branch of? Posterior inferior cerebellar artery; Vertebral artery

Section 105.2 Cranial Nerves

What cranial nerve is associated with smell? Sight? Hearing and balance? Olfactory n. (CNI); Optic n. (CNII); Vestibulocochlear n. (CN VIII)
What cranial nerve is associated with eyeball movement and the pupil? Oculomotor n. (CNIII)
What cranial nerve is associated with eye adduction? Trochlear n. (CNIV)
What is the only cranial nerve that crosses over? Trochlear n. (CNIV)
What cranial nerve is associated with sensaton and pain in the face? Trigeminal n. (CNV)
What cranial nerve is associated with eye abduction? Abducens n. (CNVI)
What cranial nerve is associated with facial movement? Facial n. (CNVII)
What cranial nerve is associated with taste to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue? Posterior 1/3? Facial n. (CNVII); Glossopharyngeal n. (CNIX)
What cranial nerve provides innervation to viscera of the thoracic and abdominal cavity? Vagus n. (CNX)
What cranial nerve is associated with phonation (i.e. speaking)? Vagus n. (CNX)
What cranial nerve is associated with turning your head and lift your shoulders? Accessory n. (CNXI)
What cranial nerve is associated with tongue movement? Hypoglossal n. (CNXII)
Would upper motor neuron damage (e.g. brain) to the facial nerve cause deficiency in upper facial motor control, lower facial motor control or both? How about lower motor neuron damage (e.g. facial nerve itself)? Lower facial motor control; Both
Would upper motor neuron damage (e.g. brain) to the facial nerve cause deficiency on the contralateral side, ipsilateral side, or entire face? How about lower motor neuron damage (e.g. facial nerve itself)? Contralateral; Ipsilateral
A lesion at the left optic nerve (e.g. optic neuritis) would cause what type of visual field deficit? Left monocular anopsia
A horizontal lesion at the optic chiasm (e.g. pituitary adenoma) would cause what type of visual field deficit? Bitemporal heteronmymous hemianopsia
A lesion at left optic tract (e.g. CVA) would cause what type of visual field deficit? Right homonymous hemianopsia
A lesion at the radiation in the parietal loop on the left side would cause what type of visual field deficit? Right homonymous inferior quadrantanopia
Which is responsible for vision from the inferior visual field, parietal lobe or temporal lobe radiation? Parietal lobe radiation
Which is responsible for vision from the superior visual field, parietal lobe or temporal lobe radiation? Temporal lobe radiation