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Hi Yield 100 - 102

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mhewett's version from 2016-07-18 19:52

Section 100 Social Science

What type of conditioning is involuntary and will be lost if not continually conditioned? Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning
What type of conditioning is voluntary and resistant to extinction? Operant (cognitive) conditioning
The _____ is a normal reflex in infants ages newborn to about 4-5 months of age. It is a response to a sudden loss of support that makes the infant feel like he is falling. Moro reflex
What are the three components of the moro reflex, in order? (1) Arm abduction (2) Arm adduction (3) Crying
In an infant, what is the babinski sign indicative of? Incompletely myelinated corticospinal tract
At what age does the babinski sign normal disappear? Moro reflex? 1-2 years; 4-5 months
When is the developmental milesstone for saying one word clearly (besides ma-ma and da-da)? Copying a triangle? 1 year; 6 years
When is the developmental milesstone for saying 5-10 words and ones own name? Copying a circle? 18 months; 3 years
When is the developmental milesstone for saying 2 word sentences? Copying a square? 2 years; 5 years
The standard IQ test median is _____. Anyone with an IQ less than _____ is deemed to have intellectual disability. An IQ below _____ generally requires custodial care 24/7. 100; <70; <40
What are the five stages of grief as defined by Dr. Kubler-Ross? (1) Denial (2) Anger (3) Bargaining (4) Depression (5) Acceptance
In terms of substance use disorders, _____ is defined as use that results in issues at work, school, or home. Abuse
In terms of substance use disorders, _____ is defined as recurrent and persistent use of drugs because the drug is needed for normal function. Dependence
In terms of substance use disorders, _____ is defined as the need to continually increase dosage to obtain same desired effect of drug. Tolerance
In terms of substance use disorders, _____ is defined as psychological attachment to a drug, featuring chronic, recurring complusive drug seeking use, despite harmful consequences. Addiction
Does cocaine dilate, constrict, or have no affect on pupils? Does it cause an increase, decrease or no change in energy? Dilates; Increase
What drug of abuse is asssociated with delirium tremens, sudden and severe mental or nervous system changes? Alcohol
What drug of abuse causes increased energy and distortions in time, perception, and tactile experiences? MDMA (ecstacy)
What drug of abuse causes anterograde amnesia and muscle relaxation? Rohypnol (roofies)
What drug of abuse causes distorted perception, feeling of detachment from self and environment (dissociation), and dream-like states and hallucinations? Ketamine (special K)
What drug of abuse causes gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, infertility, and aggression? Anabolic steroids
What drug of abuse causes cross-over delusions (hear colors and see sounds)? LSD (acid)
What drug of abuse causes improved focus and attention? Amphetamines
What drug of abuse causes extreme violence, loss of pain sensation, and dilated pupils? Substituted cathiones (bath salts)
What drug of abuse causes pinpoint pupils and euphoria? Opioids (narcotics)
What population of children is at the greatest risk for physical abuse? Are males or females more likely the abuser? Sickly or disabled children; Females
What are three risk factors for physical abuse? (1) Guardian/parent drug abuse (2) Guardian/parent history of physical abuse when child (3) Poverty
What is the most common type of child abuse in the US? Emotional abuse
What population of children is at the greatest risk for sexual abuse? Are males or females more likely the abuser? Pre-adolescents and adolescents; Males
What are two risk factors for sexual abuse? (1) Guardian/parent drug abuse (2) Single parent homes
What population of children is at the greatest risk for neglect? Children born from unintended pregancies
What are three risk factors for neglect? (1) Guardian/parent drug abuse (2) Domestic violence (3) Poverty

Section 101.0 Sleep Stages

What type of waves are associated with being awake? Alpha and Beta waves
What type of waves are associated with stage 1 sleep? Alpha and Theta waves
What type of waves are associated with stage 2 sleep? Theta waves
What type of waves are associated with stage 3 sleep? Theta and delta waves
What type of waves are associated with stage 4 sleep? Theta and delta waves
What type of waves are associated with REM sleep? Beta waves
What stage of sleep is the most restful state and deepest stage of sleep? Stage 3 and 4
What stage of sleep is associated with K-complexes and spindles? Stage 2
What stage of sleep comprises most (45-50%) of the sleep cycle? Stage 2
What stage of sleep is associated with night terrors, sleep talking, sleep walking, and enuresis? Stage 3 and 4
Do stages 3 and 4 become longer or shorter throughout sleep? REM? Shorter; Longer
What stage of sleep is thought to be critical for consolidation of memory for things experienced while awake? REM
_____ is an autoimmune disease that features anti-potassium channel antibodies. Individuals with this disease can go months at a time without sleep. Morvan's syndrome
Will the longest stages of 3 and 4 sleep occur with the first sleep cycle, the last, or somewhere in between? First sleep cycle

Section 102 Psychiatry

What defense mechanism is characterized by childish response to stress? Regression
What defense mechanism is characterized by suppression from awareness of any emotions and memories experienced as painful? Repression
What defense mechanism is characterized by ignoring an undersired situation and behavior as if it does not exist? Denial
What defense mechanism is characterized by substituting an acceptable motive for attitudes and behavior that really have an unacceptable motive? Rationalization
What defense mechanism is characterized by seeing all things and people as either all good or all bad? Splitting
What defense mechanism is characterized by attributing to others unwanted ideas or feeling that one is actually experiencing with onself? Projection
What is the neurotransmitter anomaly commonly seen in schizophrenia and other psychoses? Increased dopamine
What is the neurotransmitter anomaly commonly seen in depression? Decreased norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine
What is the neurotransmitter anomaly commonly seen in Alzheirmer's? Decreased acetylcholine (ACh)
What is the neurotransmitter anomaly commonly seen in anxiety? Decreased GABA
What is the neurotransmitter anomaly commonly seen in low pain threshold? Decreased serotonin
What type of personality disorder is characterized by a person who wears unmatched shoes or a coat in summer (i.e. bizarre behavior)? Schizotypal
What type of personality disorder is marked by a person who wants no close relationships? Wants close relationships but is afraid to form them? Schizoid; Avoidant
What type of personality disorder is characterized by intense but unstable relationships, splitting, and self-damaginh behavior (e.g. cutting)? Borderline
What type of personality disorder is marked by perpetual distrust and suspicion of others motives? Paranoid
What type of personality disorder is characterized by disregard for the rights of others and no ability to feel empathy for man or beast? Antisocial
What type of personality disorder is marked by excessive emotion and sexually promiscuity? Histrionic
What type of personality disorder is characterized by behavior consistent with a sense of grandiosity, a need for admiration, and a lack of empathy? Narcissistic
What type of personality disorder is marked by a need to be taken care of? Dependent
What type of personality disorder is characterized by preoccupation with perfectionism, orderliness, and control? Obsessive-compulsive
_____ are a group of disorder characterized by physical complaints that occur in the absence of identifiable physical pathology? Somatoform disorder
What type of somatoform disorder lasts many years and always involves pain? Somatization disorder
What type of somatoform disorder lasts briefly (days/weeks), but involves no pain, only pseudoneurologic complaints? Conversion disorder
What type of somatoform disorder is associated with a preoccupation with fears or concerns over having serious disease? Hypochondriasis
What type of somatoform disorder is characterized by preoccupation with an imagined bodily defect or deficit affecting one's appearance? Body dysmorphic disorder
What type of anxiety disorder is associated with recurrent, unexpected panic attacks? What is the drug of choice for acute problems? Panic disorder; Benzodiazepines
What type of anxiety disorder is marked by excessive fear triggered by the presence or anticipation of a certain object or situation? Phobic disorder
What type of anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive worry and apprehensive anticipation over multiple events or plans? How long must symptoms be present for the diagnosis? Generalized anxiety disorder; >6 months
What type of anxiety disorder occurs following a horrific traumatic event and is marked by persistent intrusive recollections of the experience? Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
What is the triad of major depressive disorder? How long must symptoms be present for the diagnosis? (1) Sadness (2) Hopelessness (3) Worthlessness; >2 weeks
Either _____ or _____ must be present for the diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Depressed mood; Anhedonia (loss of interest of something that was once enjoyed)
What is the primary symptom of dysthymic disorder? How long must symptoms be present for the diagnosis? Depressed mood; >2 years
What type of bipolar disorder is associated with individual episodes of hypomania preceded or followed by episodes of depression? Mania preceded or followed by episodes of depression? Bipolar II disorder; Bipolar I disorder
What is the drug of choice for the management of bipolar disorder? Lithium
What group of psychiatric disorders is characterized by hallucinations and delusions? What is the drug of choice for this group? Psychotic disorder; Risperidone (atypical antipsychotic)
What type of psychosis occurs for at least one day, but less than one month? Brief psychotic disorder
What type of psychosis develops in a person who has a close personal relationship with another person who already has delusions as part of a psychotic illness? Folie a Deux
What type of psychosis is marked by non-bizarre (i.e. believable) delusions? How long must symptoms be present for the diagnosis? Delusional disorder; >1 month
What type of psychosis is characterized by symptoms of schizophrenia and mood disorders? How long must symptoms be present for the diagnosis? Schizoaffective disorder; >6 months
What is the difference between schizoaffective disorder and a mood disorder with psychotic features? Schizoaffective disorder has psychosis present at some time for at least 2 weeks without any mood symptoms
What type of psychosis is marked by symptoms of schizophrenia for at least one month, but less than six months? Schizophreniform disorder
How long must a patient of symptoms of schizophrenia to be diagnosed with the disease? >6 months