Hepatic Questions

mwhyett's version from 2016-05-25 13:09


Question Answer
What are two accessory structures to the liver?1. Pancreas. 2. Gallbladder.
How long is the pancreas and where is it situated?12-15cm long, in the epigastric and left hypochondriac regions.
What is it composed of?A head, body, and tail.
What does it extend from?Duodenum to spleen.
Where are the pancreatic secretions carried to?To the duodenum through the pancreatic duct.
What cells secrete pancreatic juice?Glandular epithelial cells.
What are the two functions of the pancreas?To make hormones (endocrine), and produce enzymes for digestion (exocrine).
What are islets of Langerhans?Specialised pancreatic cells that produce hormones.
Of what percentage of pancreatic tissue do the islets of Langerhans make up?1-2%
How many different types of cells do the islets of Langerhans contain?5
What hormones do the islets of Langerhans produce?Glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin.
How much pancreatic juice does an average person produce per day?1200-1500ml.
What is the pH of pancreatic juice?8.2 pH
Why is pancreatic juice slightly alkaline?To neutralise the acidity of stomach acid.
How many lobes does the liver have?2
What separates the lobes of the liver?Falciform ligament.
How much does the liver weigh?1-2kg.
What regions does the liver occupy?Right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, and epigastric regions.
Where does the liver get its blood supply from?Hepatic artery (oxygenated), and hepatic portal vein (deoxygenated).
What are some functions of the liver?1. Blood detoxification. 2. Storage of glycogen. 3. Production of bile salts. 4. Produces heparin. 5. Activates vitamin D. 6. Stores vitamin A,D,E, and K. 7. Converts glycogen into glucose.
What surface of the liver does the gallbladder sit on?Infero-posterior surface.
How long is the gallbladder?7-10cm.
What does the common bile duct combine with and where does it enter?The pancreatic duct, and enters the 2nd part of the duodenum through the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
What combines to become the common hepatic duct?The left and right hepatic ducts.
What does the common hepatic duct combine with?Cystic duct.
What does the cystic duct and common hepatic duct become?Common bile duct.
What stimulates the production of bile?Chyme in the duodenum causes the release of cholecystokinin, which stimulates the smooth muscle of the gallbladder to release bile.
Where is bile produced and stored?Produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder.
What are the three layers of the gallbladder?1. Inner mucous membrane. 2. Middle muscular coat. 3. Outer visceral peritoneum.
How much bile does an average person produce per day?800-1000mls.
What in the liver produces bile?Hepatocytes,
What is the function of bile?Emulsification of fats.
What are the components of bile?1. Water. 2. Bile salts (biliverdin + bilirubin). 3. Cholesterol. 4. Lecithin
What is a common problem with bile?Cholesterol can crystallize to form biliary calculi.
What is a gallstone?A deposit within the gallbladder made from excess cholesterol, and bile salts.
What is GORD?Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.
What is an ERCP?Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography