Hematology test 5

jessica3l33's version from 2015-04-14 15:42

Section 1

Question Answer
Two scientists who made early descriptions of leukemia in 1845Bennet and Virchoq
Who is credited with the assigning term "weisses blut" meaning "white blood" and translated means leukemiaVirchow
Who is credited with the discovery that the origin of the diseased blood cells was the bone marrow leading to the origin of myelogeneous leukemiaNeumann
Who was the first to describe the term "acute leukemis" in 1889 Epstein
Who is credited with the discoery making the cnnection that red bood cells and white clood cells share a common cell of originHirschfield
Define and explain the difference between leukemia and lymphomaLeukemia is the mutation in the stem cell and clones. This mutation affects RBXs, WBCs, and platelets. Leukemia affects the circulating blood and bone marrow. Lymphoma is a malignant disease when there is a mass legion usually at the lymph node where it starts.
Define oncogenethe mutated gene that produces a cancerous cell when expressed
Define myelofibrosiswhen excessive scar tissue forms in the bone marrow impairing the ability to produce normal blood cells
define leukophoresisWhen white blood cells are separated from blood drawn from a patient. The RBCs and platelets are returned to the patient
cytochemistrya method of staining cells used to diagnose ALL by using stains that can distinguish AML from ALL
For diagnosis of acute leukemia initial the clinical evaluation would be based upon what?CBC, cell lineage identification, cell maturity of blood cells under examination
In acute leukemia is it possible to have prolliferation of one cell lineage while at the same time there is suppression of other cell lineagesyes, you can have proliferation of one cell lineage while supressing others
In acute leukemias cna there be extramedullary hematopoiesis, more often than not exclusively concentrated in the liverno
In AML the etiology is more often than not the result of a chromosomal translocation. This results in an abnormal oncogene expression
Identify two causes that can induce the development of AMLgenetics and toxin/chemical exposure
Name three tests or procedures used to diagnose AMLSudan Black B, myeloperoxidase, specific esterase
AML is characterized by the dysfunctional feature of specific cells produced. These cells may lead to what symptoms?fever and infection, easy bruising, fatigue, weakness
What is common to see in the peripheral blood of patients with AMLnon-hypersegmented neutrophils
What needs to be confirmed for an AML diagnosisthe percentage of myeloblasts found in blood or bone marrow is 10%
Why is the use of cytochemical stains important in the diagnosis of AMLto distinguish AML from ALL
Sudan Black B can be used to confirm AML because of which propertiesbecause it stains phospholipids and other lipids, is negative for lymphocytes, and is sensitive for granulocyte precursors,
what reactions are used by specific esterase in the diagnosis of AMLprimary granules of myeloid cells; myeloblasts, neutrophils, basophils and mast cells stain positive
true or false? Staining for terminal eoxyneuclotidyl transferase is used in the diagnosis of ALL because it is found in mature B lymphocytesfalse
Why is immunophenotyping used to classify acute leukemias such as AMLbecause the lineages of cells can be determined based on cell surface antigens using specific antibodies
NAme two sustems used to classify leukemiaFAB-French AMerican British, WHO- world health organization
What are the differences between FAB and WHO classification systems?recurrent cytogenic abnormalities present, directs the specific form and types of therapy involved
Has treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiation been assiciated with the development of AML?yes
In patients who develop AML they are ususally assiciated with what age group?young (below 50)
In ALL, overpopulation of lymphoblasts can be associated with their presence inthe liver, spleen, lymph nodes, gonads

Section 2

Question Answer
ALL is a disease of what age group?children
hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy are associated withALL
What is the predominate cell type associated with ALLB cells
What is the expected percentage of lymphoblasts present in the bone marrow in order to classify ALLgreater than 25%
The WBC count in ALL may be ..elevated decreasesd or normal
All lymphoblasts may have which featuresazurophilic granules, pseudopod projections, sudan black and myeloperoxidase stain negative, PAS often stains positive
Lymphoblasts in ALL are always terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and HLA-DR positive/negativepositive
difference that distinguishes lymphoma and leukemiain lymphoma there is a mass legion usually in the lymph nodes, in leukemia there are abnormalities sin the peripheral blood
Is it possible to have a leukocyte count higher than 100x10^9/L in CLLyes
name three myeloproliferative disorderschronic myelogeneous leukemia, myelofiibrosis with myeloid metaplasia, polycythemia vera
CML is a disease that is characterized byspecific neutrophil leukocytosis
What is a potential mechanism responsible for inhibition of apoptosisincreased tyrosine kinase
CML is associated with a specific chromosomal translocation known as the philadelphia chromosome
an effective drug in CML chemohydroxurea
Can allogenic bone marrow transplantation be a successful therapy in CMLyes
Age group assiciated with polycythemia vera60-70
In order to diagnose polycythemia you musc distinguish it from secondary erythrocytosis
How to differentiate between polycythemia vera and secondary erythrocytosis?In PV EPO levels are low, in secondary erythrocytosis, EPO is high
median survival time of PV10 years
pathophysiological features assiciated with essential thrombocythemiahemmoragic and thrombotic episodes, qualitative defect of platlets, increase in number of megakaryocytes
lymphoproliferative disorders are a clonal malignancy ofB and T lymphocytes
Chronic lymphotic leukemia (CLL) can lead to anemia, thrombocytopenia, neurtopenia, splenomegaly, and altered immune funcc
ani-apoptosis gene associated with the development of CLLBCL2
hypogammaglobinemia is associated withCLL
Hairy cell anemia is diagnosed as the result ofspecific and distinct morphological features of presenting cells
The characteristic cell type that confirms diagnosis of Hodgkin's diseaseReed-ssternberg cell
Cytokine assiciated with acceleration of malignant cells in multiple lyelomaIL-6
Multiple myeloma is associated with disorder of plasma cells
Define dysplasia when tissues do not form normally; there is abnormal cell formation
Erythroid hyperplasia is associated withrefractory anemia
Refractory anemia is characterized by deletion of the long arm chromosome 5

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