# Health Stats Definitions

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fusimore's
version from
2016-02-16 21:16

## Section 1

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Effect Size | The magnitude of difference between two groups, regarding treatment effect (Cohen's d: 0.8 LARGE, 0.5 MEDIUM, 0.2 SMALL) |

Causation | Condition precedes a disease such that had it been different in a specific way, disease would not have happened |

Standard Deviation | The absolute value of the average difference of an individual value from a mean (good for mathematical manipulation, ONLY normal distributions) |

Coefficient of Determination (r squared) | The amount of variance in one measure (y) that is explained by another measure (x) (relative, can be underestimated if data is not linear) |

Systematic Review | Clearly formed question with explicit methods that identify, select and appraise relevant literature |

Type II Error | Probability of saying the new treatment is not effective, when it is (difficult to calculate, unlikely to report it: -ve study) |

Correlation Coefficient | Strength of association between two variables |

Sensitivity | Of the people that have the disease, the percent that will test positive (important for ruling out something sinister -- high false positives) |

p-value | Represents risk of Type I error: the chance that you will mistakenly reject the null; the probability that the result is due to chance alone (usually p<0.05, many tests p<0.001) |

Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) | The conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence |

Statistical Significance | If a test is statistically significant, the results are unlikely to be due to chance. |

Reliability | Overall consistency of a measure with repeated attempts (intra-rater, inter-rater) |

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) | How often a negative finding is correct (should be high if prevalence is low -- PREVALENCE DEPENDENT!) |

Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) | Takes into account error of instrument and clinical variance |

Standard Error of the Mean | The standard deviation of all sample means (of a given size) drawn from a population |

Standard Error | Estimate of population variance |

Sample Size | Depends on 1) Effect Size 2) Type I error 3) Type II error 4) Population size |

Utility | Is it useful? Does it make sense? Will you use it? |

Specificity | Of all of the people who do not have the disease, the percent that will test negative (used for: emotionally or financially burdensome results) |

Accuracy | How close a measure is to the true/actual value (must be both accurate and reliable) |

Epidemic | Concentration of new cases in time in a region/country |

Pandemic | Concentration of new cases in time in a large region/country |

Endemic | An infection/disease that is maintained in a population |

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) | How often a positive finding is correct (should be high if prevalence is high! PREVALENCE DEPENDENT) |

Type I Error | The probability of saying there is a difference in treatment effects when there is not. |

Sufficient Cause | A minimum set of conditions for an outcome to occur |

Quality of Care | The degree to which health services increase likelihood of desired health outcomes |

Confidence Interval | Describes the uncertainty inherent in a point estimate and a range of values you can be certain (within reason) that the true effect lies (95% CI), to narrow CI, increase n |

Validity | The degree to which the tool measures what they intend it to measure (content, criteria, construct, face) |

Odds Ratio | A measure of association between an exposure and an outcome (the odds that an outcome will occur given a particular exposure (vs no exposure) |

## Section 2

Question | Answer |
---|---|

What are the risk factors for stroke | ABCD (Age >60, BP >140/90mmHg, Clinical Features FAST, Duration worse over 1h) |

What are the risk factors for VBA (Choi, 2008) | Diabetes mellitus, HT, cholesterol, family Hx, smoking, alcohol, pregnancy, acute infection, previous Hx, stress, sedentary lifestyle, URTI |

What is the definition of stroke (WHO, 2008) | A clinical syndrome consisting of rapidly developing clinical signs of focal (sometimes global) disturbances of cerebral function lasting >24h or leading to death; vascular in origin |

Brown Sequard Syndrome | Unilateral lesion: ipsilateral paresis, loss of touch, position and vibration sense; contralateral loss of pain/temp |

Central Cord Syndrome | Lamina X (esp STT): Paresis (UL > LL), loss of pain (shawl-like), vibration and position sense intact |

Anterior Cord Syndrome | Infarct of anterior spinal artery: all tracts affected (except position and vibration sense) |

Anterior Horn | Motor function |

Posterior Horn | Sensory function |

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