Health Psych Exam 4

supulora's version from 2015-05-01 16:40

Section 1

Question Answer
Pain that requires some form of medical treatmentClinical Pain
A sharp, stinging pain that is short lived and usually related to tissue damageAcute pain
Burns, fractures, overused muscles are all examples of:Acute Pain
Migrane headaches are an example of:Recurrent pain
Dull, burning pain that is long lastingChronic Pain
(n): Increased pain sensitivity over time. May recover by recuperative behaviors, normal adaptation during sicknessHyperalgesia
Name two ways to measure pain phsychophysiologically Electromyography (EMG) & Indicators of autonomic arousal
An EMG looks at..muscle tension
Indicators of autonomic arousal include:HR, Resp., BP, etc.
Name a behavioral measure for painPain behavior scale
As an individual is going through a task, they are being supervised by a health care. This expert is observing vocal complaints, facial grimaces, awkward postures, and mobility. What kind of measure is this?Behavioral measures for pain
(n): is a specialized neuron that responds to painful stimuliNociceptor
Free nerve endings are sensory receptors found through out the body that respond to..1) Painful Stimuli 2) Temperature 3) Pressure
(n): are large, myelinated nerve fibers that transmit sharp, stinging pain.Fast nerve fibers
(n): are small, unmyelinated nerve fibers that carry dull, aching pain.Slow Nerve fibers
What is the speed of fast nerve fibers? slow nerve fibers?15-30 m/sec & .5-2 m/sec
(n): Dorsal (back) region of the spinal cord where fast and slow pain fibers synapse (connect/transmit) with sensory nerves on their way to the brainSubstantia Gelatinosa
What is the NT secreted by pain fibers in the spinal cord that stimulate the transmission cells to send pain signals to the brain?Substance P
What does glutamate do?Stimulates nerve endings at the site of an injury
Endogenous opioids (endorphins) in nerve endings of cells in the brain and SC that bind to opioid receptors are known asEnkephalins
What does Enkephalins do?May regulate release of substance P and affect how much of the slow pain systems message reaches the brain
The midbrain region plans an important role in perception of pain. It activates a descending neural pathway that uses serotonin to close the "pain gate". What is this region called?Periaqueductal Gray (PAG)
Gate control theory of pain perception was proposed by Melzack and Wall (1965). What was this idea?The idea that there is a neural "gate" in the SC that regulates the experience of pain. Pain is not the result of a straight-through sensory channel
What are transmission cells?Cells that relay pain messages to the brain when gate is open
What is Central Control Mechanism?Descending neural pathway by which the brain shuts the gate
T/F Women report more pain than menTrue
As you age what happens to your pain level?Increase in # of cases of pain and Decrease in tolerance
(n): tendency to exaggerate symptoms and use emotional behavior to solve problemsHysteria
(n): tendency to become overly concerned about health and to overreport body symptoms Hypochondriasis
(n): Report high levels of pain, feel they have little control over their lives, and are extremely inactiveDysfunctional Patients
(n): Perceive little social support and feel other people in their lives don't take their pain seriouslyInterpersonality distressed patients
(n): Report lower levels of pain and distress and continue to function at a high levelAdaptive copers
Opioid Analgesics are (___) that act on receptors in the brain and SC to reduce the intensity of pain messages or the brain's response to pain messagesAgonist
What is the most powerful and widely used opioid?Morphine
Name some examples of NSAIDSAspirin, Ibuprofen, and other drugs that relieve pain and reduce inflammation
NSAIDS block an enzyme needed to create (---), which is the chemical responsible for localized painProstaglandin
Other medical interventions to treat pain involve surgery. What does this consist of?Destroying cells of thalamus may alleviate deep, burning pain
() is a counter irritation form of analgesia involving electrically stimulating spinal nerves near a painful areaTranscutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
(n): Is a multidisciplinary pain-management program that combines cognitive, physical, and emotional interventionsCognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
In CBT, what two components are used to clarify clients' expectations?Education & Goal Setting
Name 5 errors in thinking of pain patients.1) Catastrophizing 2) Overgeneralizing 3) Victimization 4) Self-Blame 5)Dwelling on the pain
A component of Lamaze training (prepared childbirth) uses..Guided Imagery
What technique is most effective with low to medium levels of pain intensity?Guided Imagery

Section 2

Question Answer
Name 3 things that are involved with recognizing and interpreting symptoms1) Attentional Focus 2) Sensitizers 3) Repressors
(n): A persons' characteristic style of monitoring bodily symptoms, emotions, and overall well-beingAttentional Focus
People with strong () forces are MORE likely to DETECT symptoms than people with () forces. Why?Internal, External. b/c external people live busy lives and distracted to recognize.
(n): People who closely scan their bodies and their environments. Seek more informationSensitizers
(n): These type of people cope with health problems by ignoring them or distancing themselves from information. Avoid/reduce stressRepressors
How do we define sickness? (5 factors)1) Identity 2) Causes 3) Timeline 4) Consequences 5) Controllability
At what age do you see the biggest difference in sex when it comes to doctor visits?15-44 yrs old
Women/Men are more likely to report symptomsWomen
Women/Men are more likely to use health servicesWomen
Who may be exposed to more illnesses? Men or women?Women
Women/Men often dodge doctorsMen
Women/Men.. 1/3 wouldn't go to the doctors immediately, even experiencing chest pain or SOBMen
What percentage of men had been checked for cancer in the past year?32%
(n): An informal network of family, friends, and others who offer their own experiences and advice regarding symptomsLay Referral System
People with high SES are (more/less) likely to seek attentionMORE likely to seek medical attention
(n): The condition of experiencing abnormal anxiety over one's health, often including imaginary symptomsHypochondrasis
(n): Making believe one is ill to benefit from sick role behaviorMalingering
(n): a disorder of uncertain causes in which headaches, infections of unknown origins, extreme tiredness, and difficulties with concentration occurChronic Fatigue Syndrome
How can you treat Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?Anti-hypotensive medication (prevents low BP), Hydrocortisone (boosts energy level)

Section 3

Question Answer
By one estimate, only (%) of patients actually follow their treatment regimens exactly.46%
What are some patient variables that can help predict poor adherenceGender, Ethnicity, Education, and income
What is patient-provider communication?Providers communication style to be non-expert, but non-child, and less officious
Name a few provider communication problems.1) Lack of information 2) Poor understanding of medical advice 3) Perception of being unable to comply w/treatment instructions
In health care, when do more misunderstandings occur?Misunderstandings occur more often when patients and providers are from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds
Szasz & Hollender (1956) What was this model of patient provider relationship?Modeled after prototypical styles of parenting. Traditional, paternalistic model in which providers take the upper hand and treat patients, in effect, as passive children
How many people die from preventable medical errors in hospitals?195,000

Section 4

Question Answer
(n): Collection, interpretation, and integration of the best research-based evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patientsEvidence-Based Medicine (EBM)
(n): Physical health and emotional, spiritual, social, psychological well beingHolistic Medicine
(n): Therapies or diagnostic techniques that fall outside of conventional biomedicineComplementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)
What are the three ideals of CAM?To provide health treatment that is NATURAL, HOLISTIC, and PROMOTES WELLNESS
Why do placebos work?Many alternative explanations. Classical conditioning, "remembered wellness", placebos may tap "inner pharmacy"
What is the evidence in regards to acupuncture and pain?Acupuncture provides SOME patients with SOME relief
Does acupuncture work with substance abuse?yes! 50% of cocaine addicts are drug free
What is the evidence based on relaxation and hypertension?Lowered blood pressure with placebo
McCullough (2000) study. Spirituality and HealthReligiously active were 36% less likely to die in any given year
Hummer (1999) study. Spirituality and HealthThose who rarely attended religious services were 1.87 times more likely to die over 8-year study
Naturophathic medicine: What is capsaicin used for?Relieving Osteoarthritis pain
What properties does ginger have?inflammatory properties

Section 5

Question Answer
What is social integrationDefined as participation in a broad range of social relationships
Social integration and mortality. (--) numbers of social ties associated with (--) mortality Increasing, Decreasing mortality
What are some immune effects on loneliness?Lower NKCC, Higher levels of EBV antibody
Being married is associated with:Better self reported health, Lower risk of disease, better recovery from surgery, better physiology, lower mortality rates
Why are married people healthier?More social support, reduced stress, improved health behaviors, greater finances, lower levels of depression,

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