HCI Mid-Term Prep

ohsobeezee23's version from 2016-10-16 17:13


Question Answer
InterfaceAn interface refers to what is presented to the user. Could be a visual, physical, or auditory presentation, Includes what you can manipulate
Interactionthe dialogue between the computer and the user (The actions the user must invoke to perform a task and the corresponding responses The dialogue is ongoing)
Interactive CycleInput/output channels constitute the interface
Interactive Cycle Steps1. formulate a goal, 2. user translates method into sys input lang 3. sys executes the method
Gulf of executionwhen the user has difficulties providing instructions that are executable by the system
When is the Gulf smallwhen the system provides information about its state must be easy to interpret and matches the way a person thinks of the system
Evolution of Interaction Paradigmsfocus has shifted from what is easiest and fastest for the comp to what interfaces and interactions naturally suit the users tasks
Batch InterfaceUser provides system with all instructions in a single batch job // High degree of training required
Conversational / command lineUser enters commands in text at the command-line System executes command
Advantages of Conversational interfaceHighly flexible: by combining commands, many sophisticated operations are possible
Disadvantages of Conversational interfaceRequires recall rather than recognition During system execution, the user has little control
Graphic InterfaceWhat we use today Users in control System waits for input, responds Recognition vs. recall Enables discovery and experimentation
UbiComp (Ubiquitous Computing) to create language of interaction so close to task domain that the computer and its interface essentially become invisible
What is the Ultimate Goal?Interfaces should meet the tasks that users want to perform and Users shouldn’t have to adapt their behaviour or learn new interaction techniques
Why is Design Hard?Judging/predicting which designs will be successful is difficult Way more is possible than what is good Design involves making trade-offs Good designs are non-obvious


Question Answer
usability goaladdresses the issue of meeting a specific usability criteria
user experience goals the quality of the user's exp with the system
common usability goalsEffectiveness, Efficiency, Safety, Utility, Learnabillity, Memorability
usability criteriasomething that can be measured to determine if the goal is being met
EffectivenessWhether the system is doing what is generally says it will do
EfficiencyConsiders how much time it will take users to perform their tasks
LearnabilityHow easy is the system to learn Important if system will be adopted by the user
MemorabilityOnce learned, how easy is the system to remember
Usability Goals: RecapUsability goals involve defining important usability objectives for a particular system or part of a system and user experience goals relate to the subjective experience and are more difficult to measure

User Centred Design

Question Answer
What happens in the investigate stage in User- centered designs1. Learn about stakeholders 2. Discover goals and needs 3. how is it done now? 4. what is wanted. 5. What else has been tried?
What happens in the Ideate stage in User- centered designs1. Generate lots of ideas 2. Grasp issues and potential solutions
What happens in the Prototype stage in User- centered designsProduce something tangible Identify challenges and Uncover subtleties
What happens in the Evaluate stage in User- centered designsDiscover problems, Assess progress, determine next steps
What happens in the Produce stage in User- centered designsBuild final product, Ramp up marketing , support, and maintenance
Why Prototype?It’s cheap and fast Easier for users to react to concrete things rather than abstract concepts Prototyping brings subtleties and nuances to light Working against some technical constraints is good


Question Answer
Why are Time-lapses usefulUseful for providing an objective, longitudinal view of activity within a context
IDEO behavioral Archaeologylook for evidence of people's activities inherent in the placement wear patterns and organization of places and things
Why is behavioral Archaeology good?Reveals how artifacts and environments figure in peoples lives highlighting aspects of their lifestyle, habits and values
Are you ever right?Always assume you are wrong Go and figure out in what ways, and how much you’re wrong.
Unstructured interviewuseful when little is known about the target domain or end user. Even though they have a lack of structure they should always have an objective
Structured Interviewsquestions are closed, User selects an answer from a pre-determined set of alternatives
Semi-Structuredsomewhere in between both and answers can take it in new directions
IDEO Foreign CorrespondentsRequest input from people in other countries and conduct a cross-cultural study to find differences
IDEO Surveys and QuestionnairesAsk a series of targeted questions in order to assert particular characteristics and perception of users.
Questions should beConcise, Closed, and provide Alternate options so you can't leave a no opinion option , well ordered and clear
IDEO camera Journalvisual diary, useful for prompting users to reveal points of view and patterns of behavior
Mental modelthought process or understanding of how something works
IDEO collageAsk user to make collage ask them why the order is the certain way and helps them verbalize complex or unimagined themes
IDEO Card Sortname possible features, functions, or design attributes, ask people to organize the cards spatially in ways which make sense to them. WHY: helps expose people's mental models of a device or system
Draw the experienceAsk participants to visualize an experience through drawings and diagrams WHY: good way to debunk assumptions and reveal how people conceive of and order their experiences or activities
IDEO NarrationAs they perform a process or execute a specific task, ask the user to say what they think out loud
Underlying idea of thismethods help us discover WHAT is happening and WHY

IDEO Learn and Try

Question Answer
IDEO Character ProfilesDevelop character profiles to rep archetypes and details of certain behavior and lifestyle
IDEO congnitive Task AnalysisList and summarize all of a user's sensory inputs, decision pints, and actions, helps to identify bottlenecks where errors may occur
IDEO flow analysisRepresent flow of info or activity through all phases of a system or process.
IDEO error analysislist things that can go wrong, helps find errors and where they can go wrong
IDEO secondary researchReview articles papers and docs about the design issue, useful way to ground observations and to develop a point of view on the state of the art
IDEO empathy toolsput yourself in anothers shoe by giving yourself a hindrance or a disability
Underlying idea of thisGet to know your users by “doing” in addition to watching and asking.
Scenarios and task descriptionsgreat way to solidify and formalize your understanding of your users’ needs and test cases

Ideation and Prototyping

Question Answer
Why Prototype?useful for Promoting reflection, Clarifying requirements, Exploring alternatives, Initial user testing
What to Prototype?Screen layouts, technical issues, work flow, task design, and explore difficult, controversial, and critical areas
Low-fidelity prototype implies incomplete or lacking some detail
Why low-fidelity?Cheaper, faster to create, Can explore multiple alternative design without getting, stuck on technical details, Users often more inclined to comment on designs that appear less “finished”
Vertical prototypesincludes in-depth functionality for only a few selected features common design ideas can be tested in depth
Horizontal prototypesthe entire surface interface with no underlying functionality a simulation; no real work can be performed
Three methods for managing this integration1. evolutionary 2. modular (incremental) 3. throw-away

Human Abilities

Question Answer
Two components of understanding the user1. Needs with respect to specific system being designed (e.g., expertise, tasks, procedures, context-of-use) 2.Fundamental human characteristics (e.g., vision, memory, cognition)
Define PerceptionProcessing of sensory information in order to see, hear, taste, smell, or feel objects in the world
What is the most dominant for of perception Vision
Two stages in vision1. Physical reception of stimulus 2. Processing and interpretation of stimulus (Size and depth, Color, Patterns)
Visual angleindicates how much of the view the object occupies (relates to size and distance from eye)
Visual acuityability to perceive detail (limited)
Law of size constancyFamiliar objects perceived as constant size
3 Color componentsHue, Intensity, Saturation
Hueis the property of the wavelength of light (i.e. color) such as red or yellow
Saturationis the amount of white or black in a color. Some hues are inherently lighter or darker
Saturationis the strength or purity of the hue in a color. The higher the saturation, the purer the color, i.e. red is more saturated than pink
Which of the cones in eye is the least likely distributedBlue at 4% (while red is 64% and green is 32%)
Using color for good designInterface should use clear, secondary cues, to convey the info to those with deficiencies
Gestalt principlesSet of principles describing how our mind perceives wholes out of incomplete elements. Extremely useful in creating structure in an interface
Gestalt principles of perceptionProximity, Similarity, Continuity, Closure, Area and Symmetry
ProximityItems that are closer together will appear to belong together as compared to items that are further away
SimilarityItems that share basic visual characteristics will be seen as belonging together (Size, color, texture, orientation)
ContinuityVisual system prefers continuous figures
ClosureWe tend to see complete figures even when part of the information is missing
AreaThe smaller of two overlapping figures is perceived as figure while the larger is regarded as ground. Figure: element that is interpreted as object of interest Ground: area on which figure rests
SymmetryThe greater the symmetry, the more we see relationships and ascribe meaning to the composition

Memory, Cognition, and Learning

Question Answer
3 types of memorySensory, short term and long term
Sensory memory has one buffer per each channel what are the three and what are they for1. Iconic memory for visual 2. Echoic memory for aural 3. Haptic memory for touch
Implication of sensory memoryinformation constantly over-written/destroyed
In order to be attentive we needArousal, interest, and need
2 forms of long term memoryepisodic and semantic
Episodic memoryrepresents our memory of events and experiences in a serial form from this memory we reconstruct the actual events that took place at a given point in our lives
Semantic memorystructured record of facts and concepts that we have acquired information is derived from that in our own episodic memory, such that we can learn new facts or concepts from our experiences
What helps us rememberMeaning, categories and pictures (RECOGNITION IS MUCH EASIER THAN RECALL)
What causes us to forgetInterference // Retroactive interference: New information masks old //Proactive inhibition: Old information leaks through

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