H Anatomy

laurabockoff's version from 2016-09-08 01:31

Section 1

Question Answer
Acidchemicals that release hydrogen ions
Basechemicals that release hydroxide ions
Amino Acidscontains an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a "R" group
Fatty Acidsa long chain of carbon atoms with a carboxyl group at the end
Nucleotidescontain a phosphate group and amino acid
monosaccharidesimple sugars
Disaccharide2 sugars linked together
polysaccharide3 or more sugars linked together

Section 2

Question Answer
ATPthe primary energy molecule used by the body
BufferAny chemical that prevents large changes in pH
Carbohydratethe primary source of energy for the body
Lipidthe secondary source of energy in the body; provides protection and cushioning for body parts, provides insulation
Proteinmakes up the majority of muscles and other structures in the body; Third source of energy for the body
Covalent bondbonds where electrons are shared (very strong)
Ionic bondbonds where there is a transfer of electrons between atoms
Hydrogen bondsbond formed between Hydrogen and Oxygen (weak)

Section 3

Question Answer
DNADeoxyribonucleic acid: carrier of all genetic information. Self- replicating material present in all living thigns
RNARibonucleic acid: acts as a messenger and carries instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins
Enzymesubstances that speed up chemical reactions
Glycogenstored form of glucose made up of polysaccharides
Synthesis reactionsubstances are combined making more complex ones ex) A+B+ energy -----> AB +H2O
Decomposition reactionthe breaking down of substances into component parts ex) AB+ H2O------> A+B+ energy
Peptide BondsTHE BOND that JOINS two amino acids together to form proteins and H2O. When the carboxyl group, amino acid, and "R" group combine with another structure.

Section 4

Question Answer
pH scalea scale that measures the strength of acids and bases
Diffusionthe movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Ribosomesmakes proteins to be used inside the cell
cytoplasmgel-like fluid inside cell
Endocytosisthe process where substances (both solids or liquids) are "taken up" by cells; "cell eating"
Exocytosisthe process where substances (wastes) are removed from a cell/tissue
Phagocytosistaking in of just solids; "cell eating"
Pinocytosisthe process where liquids only are "taken up" by cells; "cell drinking"

Section 5

Question Answer
Flagellatiny, whip-like tail used to move the cell
Mitochondriapowerhouse; makes ATP for the cell
Organelletiny organs within a cell that contribute to its functions; make up cells

Section 6

Question Answer
rough ERmakes proteins to be exported from the cell
Smooth ERdetoxification; creates lipids and cholesterol
Golgi Apparatusmodifies and packages proteins to be exported from the cell
Lysomesbreaks down wastes (toxins)
Cytoskeletongives shape and support to cell
Centriolescreates spindles for mitosis; spindles move the chromosomes throughout the cell
Ciliatiny hair-like extensions that allows for movement of the cell and for movement of particles across the cell surface
nucleuscontains DNA; control center of the cell
nucleolusinside nucleus; makes ribosomes
Chromatincontains DNA (long and thin)
Plasma Membranecell membrane
Vacuolestorage sac inside of cell

Section 7

Question Answer
Osmosissame as diffusion except movement of WATER only
Active Transportthe movement of a substance against the concentration gradient; requires ATP (low to high)
Passive transportmovement of a substance down the concentration radiant; does not require ATP (same as diffusion: High to Low)
solutesubstances being dissolved
Solventsubstance that is doing the dissolving
Hypotonican environment that does not contain as much solute as the cell; the cell increases because of water from outside
hypertonican environment that contains more solute than the cell; cell shrinks because leaves
trick for hypertonic and hypotonic:Water wants to go wherever there is MORE solute whether its the cell or the water surrounding it
elementany matter made up of the same type of atom
isotopesatoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons it contains
radioisotopesisotopes that have been radioactively tagged. Used to diagnose possible problems ex) blocked artery