Create
Learn
Share

Gyn-bioche-opth

rename
medmaestro's version from 2016-01-18 18:55

GYNAECOLOGY

ConditionMost common sites
Gartner’s cystantero lateral wall of vagina (10 O’ clock position)
Bartholin’s cystat anterior 2/3 rd + posterior 1/3rd junction of labium majus (inner side)
Adenocarcinoma (by DES-Diethylstilbesterol)anterior wall of vagina
Endometriotic cyst,inclusion cystposterior wall of vagina
Hormonal biopsy/ vaginal cytologylateral wall of vagina (upper 1/3rd)
Pap smearposterior wall of cervix (squamocolumnar junction)
Cervical erosionleft lateral wall of cervix (3 O’ clock position)
Vaginal laceration in forced coitusanterior wall of Vagina
Part of hymen prone for rupturepostero lateral position
Hidradenomapapillary adenomatous mass arising from apocrine gland of the vulva may become malignant
Cyst of canal of Nuckremnant of processus vaginalis beneath the anterior part of labia minora
Nabothian follicleoccurs in erosion cervix ,due to squamous epithelium occluding the mouths of cervical glands.
memorize

Cataract

Question Answer
Sunflower Cataract Wilson’s Disease,Chalcosis
Snow Flake CataractJuvenile Diabetes Mellitus,Down Syndrome
Rosette Shaped CataractBlunt Trauma ( Vossius Ring On The Anterior Surface Of Lens)
Christmas Tree CataractMyotonic Dystrophy
Oil Drop CataractGalactosemia
Blue Dot CataractHypoparathyroidism
Shield CataractAtopic Dermatitis
Bread Crumb Appearance / Rainbow Cataract /Polychromatic LustreComplicated Cataract
Morgagnian CataractHypermature Senile Cataract
memorize
Ocular manifestations of certain drugs
Question Answer
Digitalisdisturbance of colour vision
Thiazidesxanthopsia
Amphetamineswidening of palpabral fissures
Haloperidolcapsular cataract
Diiodohydroxy quinolinesubacute myelo optic neuropathy (SMON)
Penicillamineocular pemphigoid
Vitamin Apapilloedema , retinal haemorrhages , loss of eyebrows and eyelashes,nystagmus,diplopia , blurring
memorize

 

LESION OF PUPILLARY PATHWAYSYMPTOMS
Optic nerveU/L amaurotic paralysis
Medial chiasmaB/L Hemianopic paralysis
Lateral chiasmaBinasal hemianopic paralysis
Optic tractC/L hemianopic paralysis (Wernicke reaction)
Proximal part of optic tractnormal papillary reactions
Superficially in the region of brachium and tectumcontralateral hemianopic paralysis
Central decussationB/L reflex paralysis (B/L Argyll Robertson Pupil)
Between the decussation & the constrictor centreI/L abolition of direct reaction with retention of consensual reaction ,retention of both contralaterally[U/L Argyll Robertson pupil )
Partial lesion between the decussation and the constrictor centreI/L abolition of direct reaction with retention of consensual reaction ,retention of both reactions contralaterally
Nuclear / extensive supranuclearI/L absolute papillary paralysis
Third nerveabsolute ipsilateral papillary paralysis
Ciliary ganglionabolition of the light reflex with retention of the near reflex ,sometimes with tonic contraction (Adie’s pupil)
memorize

 

SITE OF LESION IN OPTIC PATHWAYCAUSESFEATURES
Optic nerveneuritis, atrophy,sarcoidosis,leber’s hereditary optic neuropathycomplete blindness in affected eye ,I/L loss of light reflex ,consensual reflex loss on the other side,near reflex present ,central/paracentral scotoma
Central lesions of chiasmapituitary tumours (MCC),Suprasellar aneurysm , craniopharyngioma,glioma of 3rd ventricle,meningioma at tuberculum sellaebitemporal hemianopia
Lateral chiasmal lesiondistension of 3rd ventricle ,atheroma of posterior communicating arterybinasal hemianopia
Optic tract lesion ,lateral genicualte body lesion,lesion involving total fibres of optic radiation---incongruous(contralateral) homonymous hemianopia
Temporal lobe lesions involving inferior fibresof optic radiation----superior quadrantic hemianopia (PIE IN THE SKY )
Anterior parietal lobe lesions involving superior fibres of optic radiation---inferior quadrantic hemianopia(PIE ON THE FLOOR)
Anterior occipital cortexocclusion of posterior cerebral arterycongruous homonymous hemianopia SPARING MACULA
Tip of occipital cortexhead injurycongruous homonymous macular defect
memorize

 

BIOCHEMISTRY
LYSOSOMAL STORAGE DISORDERS/SPHINGOLIPIDOSES
DISEASEENZYME DEFECTLIPID ACCUMULATING
GaucherAcid Β GlucosidaseGlucosyl Ceramide
Niemann PickSphingomyelinaseSphingomyelin
Fabry’sΑ-Galactosidase AGlobotriacyl Ceramide
Tay Sach’sΒ-Hexosaminidase A(HAD-A)GM2 Gangliosides
Sandhoff’sΒ-Hexosaminidase A & B (HAD-A& B )GM2 Gangliosides
Krabbe’sGalactosyl CeramidaseGalactsyl Ceramide,Galactosyl Sphingosine
Metachromatic LeukodystrophyAryl Sulphatase ACerebroside Sulphate
memorize
Glycogen storage disorders
Type/Namedeficient enzyme
Type I / Von Gierke’s DsGlucose 6 Phosphatase
Type II / Pompe’s DsLysosomal Α1-4 And 1-6 Glucosidase (Acid Maltase)
Type Iiia / Limit Dextrinosis,Forbe’s Ds Or Cori’s DsLiver And Muscle Debranching Enzyme
Type III B / Limit DextrinosisLiver Debranching Enzyme
Type IV /Amylopectinosis,Anderson’s DiseaseAbsence Of Branching Enzyme
Type V / Mc Ardle’s SyndromeAbsence Of Muscle Phosphorylase
Type VI / Her’s DiseaseLiver Phosphorylase
Type VII/ Tarui’s DiseaseDeficiency Of Phosphofuctokinase In Muscle And Erythrocytes
Type VIII /---Deficiency Of Liver Phosphorylase Kinase
Type IX / ----Liver & Muscle Phosphorylase Kinase
Type XC-AMP Dependent Protein Kinase
memorize
BIOCHEMICAL TESTS
Question Answer
Acree-Rosenheim TestQualitative Test For Protein
Aldehyde TestFor Indole (Tryptophan)
Babcock’s Test To Determine Amount Of Milk Fat
Bender – Gestalt TestPsychological Test To Measure One’s Ability To Viasually Copy A Set Of Geometric Designs
Benedict’s TestDetect Glucose In Urine
Bentiromide TestSimple Test Of Pancreatic Exocrine Function (Bentiromide Is Dcleaved By Chymotrypsin)
Benzidine Test Adler’s Test)Test For Blood And Blood Stains
Biuret TestFor Determination Of Peptide Bonds
Bromosulphathalein TestLliver Function Test
Cyanide-Nitroprusside TestHomocystinuria
Exton-Rose TestType Of Glucose Tolerance Test
Feulgen’s TestFor Presence Of DNA In Tissue Sections
Fouchet’s Test/Gmelin’s TestBilirubin In Urine
Gerhardt’s TestKetone Bodies In Urine
Guthrie TestScreening Test For Phenylketonuria
Ferric Chloride TestPhenylketonuria
Hollander’s TestInsulin Test For Intact Nerve Fibres After Vagotomy For Peptic Ulcer
Liebermann Burchard ReactionFor Cholesterol
Millon’s TestFor Phenol(Tyrosine)
Molisch’s TtestColour Test For Sugar
Ninhydrin TestFor Alpha Amino Group
Nitroprusside TestSulfhydryl Test (Cysteine)
Pauly’s TestImidazole (Histidine)
Rothera’s TestKetone Bodies
Sakaguchi’s TestFor Guanidium(Arginine)
Schilling’s TestVit B12 Deficiency
Selivanoff’s TestFructose In Urine
Sulphur TestSulfhydryl Test (Cysteine)
Xanthoproteic TestFor Benzene Ring
Zwenger’s TestFor Cholesterol
memorize

 

SPECIALIZED PRODUCTS OF AMINO ACIDS
CYSTEINE IS OBTAINED FROM METHIONINE IN BODY.2 CYSTEINE JOIN TO FORM CYSTINE.
AMINO ACIDPRODUCT
GlycineCreatine,Glutathione,Heme,Purines,Conjugated Bile Acids
TyrosineThyroxine,Epinephrine,Norepinephrine,Dopamine,Melanin
TryptophanNAD,NADP,Serotonin,Melatonin
MethionineCreatine,Epinephrine,Polyamines
CysteineGlutathione,Taurine,Coenzymea,Active Sulphate
HistidineHistamine
ArginineCreatine ,Nitric Oxide
LysineCarnitine
GlutamateGABA,Glutathione,Gamma Carboxy Glutamate
GlutaminePurines,Pyramidines,Amino Sugars
AspartatePurines,Pyrimidines
SerinePhophatidyl Serine ,Sphingomyelins,Choline
Β-Alanine Coenzyme A
memorize

How Amino Acids Form Products

Question Answer
CreatineGlycine + Arginine + Methionine (GAM)
Heme SynthesisGlycine + Succinyl Co A
GlutathioneGlycine + Cysteine + Glutamate
PurineGlycine + Aspartate +Gluatamine+Serine
PyrimidineAspartate + Glutamine
KeratinHistidine+Arginine+Lysine
HistoneArginine+Lysine
CarnosineΒ-Alanaine+Histidine
CholineGlycine +Serine+ Methionine
memorize

 

CATABOLISM OF CARBON SKELETONS OF AMINO ACIDS
Question Answer
Amino Acids That Form OxaloacetateAsparagines (Aspartate)
Amino Acids That Form FumaratePhenylalanine ,Tyrosine
Amino Acids That Form Succinyl Co AMethionine,Isoleucine,Valine,Threonine
Amino Acids That Form Α-Ketoglutaric Acid(Or Glutarate)Glutamine,Proline,Arginine,Histidine
Amino Acids That Form PyruvateAlanine,Cystine,Serine,Threonine,Glycine
Amino Acids That Form Acetyl Co A/Acetoacetyl Co ALeucine,Tryptophan,Isoleucine,Phenylalanine,Lysine,Tyrosine
memorize

 

AMINO ACIDS AND R GROUPS
AMINO ACIDSR GROUPS
GlycineH
SerineHydroxyl Methyl
ArginineGuanido
HistidineImidazole
TyrosinePhenyl
TryptophanIndole
AlanineMethyl
memorize
Only Glycine Has H As R Group,Which Is Therefore The Smallest Amino Acid
Question Answer
Human Amino Acid With D ConfigurationD-Aspartate(In Brain),D-Serine(In Forebrain)
21st Amino AcdSelenocysteine
22nd Amino AcidCoded By Stop Codon UAG ,Pyrrolysine
memorize
CO-FACTOR/LIMITING AMINO ACID IN DISEASES
CONDITIONSCo FactorLimiting AA
PKU--Tyrosine
Neonatal Tyrosinemia,Alkaptonuria,HawkinsuriaVit C---
Maple Syrup Urine DiseaseVit B1 (Thiamine)----
Hartnup DiseaseNiacinTryptophan
Mitochondrial DiseaseVit B6---
Classical HomocysteinuriaVit B6 And B9 (Folic Acid)Cysteine
Methyl Malonyl AcademiaVit B12Bicarbonate
Isovaleric Acidemia ---Glycine,Carnitine
memorize

 

ENZYME DEFICIENCYMAJOR SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
S -Adenosine Homocysteine HydrolaseHypermethioninemia
ArginaseArgininemia
Cystathionine Β SynthaseHomocystinuria
Fumaryl Acetoacetate HydrolaseType I Tyrosinemia (Tyrosinosis)
Glycine N Methyl TransferaseHypermethioninemia
Methionine Adenosyl TransferaseHypermethioninemia
Histidine Ammonia Lyase (Histidinase)Histidinemia And Urocanic Acidemia
Homogentisate OxidaseAlkaptonuria
P- Hydroxyphenylpyruvate HydroxylaseNeonatal Tyrosinemia
Isovaleryl Co A DehydrogenaseIsovaleric Acidemia
Branched Chain Α Ketoacid Dearboxylase ComplexBranched Chain Ketonuria (Maple Syrup Urine Disease)
Ornithine Δ AminotransferasesOrnithemia,Gyrate Atrophy
Phenylalanine HydroxylaseType I ,Classic Phenylketonuria
Proline DehydrogenaseType I ,Hyperprolinemia
Δ-Pyrroline 5 Carboxylase DehydrogenaseSaccharopnuria
Tyrosine AminotransferasesType II Tyrosinemia
memorize