Growth week 9 part 2

winniesmith2's version from 2018-01-01 12:42

Section 1

Question Answer
GH treatment; what does it do administers synthetic GH, enabling the child to show catch up growth and for there heights to move back up to the percentile lines.
Describe the HPG axis Hypothalamus secretes GnRH to the pituitary. The anterior pituitary then secrets LH and FSH, which effects the gonads. Causing the testis to release testosterone (inhibition to hypo) and inhibin (hypo and pituitary) and the ovaries to produce estradiol, progesterone and inhibin, which has a negative feedback effect on the pituitary and hypothalamus when levels get too a certain threshold.
Hormonal Feedback and regulation of male reproductive function; what happens in the testes in response to LH secretion LH stimulates the interstitial cells inside the testes, this causes testosterone secretion. Testosterone has many effects in the rest of the body but also stimulates the sustentacular cells.
Effects of testosterone secretion effects on CNS, stimulation of bone and muscle growth, maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics, maintenance of accessory glands and organs. (also stimulates the sustentacular cells in the testes)
Hormonal Feedback and regulation of the male reproductive function in the testes in response to FSH secretionFSH stimulates the seminiferous tubules and the sustentacular cells are also stimulated, by FSH and by testosterone. The sustentacular cells then stimulate the stimulation of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. Sustentacular cells also stimulate inhibin secretion (which is also stimulated by sperm factors).
Hormonal regulation of ovarian activity Hypothalamus releases GnRH. This stimulates FSH production and secretion and LH production. The FSH secretion stimulates the developing follicles which stimulates inhibin secretion (which inhibits FSH p/s) and then estrogen secretion, which stimulates GnRH release (increased pulse frequency). After 10 days of estrogen secretion LH is secreted. Both estrogen and LH then stimulate progesterone secretion by corpus luteum which inhibits the GnRH (decreased pulse frequency)
What effects does estrogen secretion have on the body Effects on CNS, stimulation of bone and muscle growth, establishment and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics. Maintenance of accessory glands and organs and the promotion of growth of, and secretion by, endometrium (also stimulated by progesterone).
Hypothyroid effects present as being short, history of tiredness, sensitive to cold, weight gain, dry and scaly skin, brittle hair and nails, loss of libido, irregular periods etc
How to treat hypothyroidismwith thyroxine. Once treated they show complete catch up growth.

Section 2

Question Answer
Example of physical environmenttemperature, climate, season etc
example of social environment urban rural, nomadic, settled etc
example of familial environmentnuclear, extended, siblings, etc
example of behavioural environmentnutritional,active, sedentary etc
example of economic national environmentsdeveloped, developing, least developed
example of economic personal environmentpoor, wealthy, average; SES
other environmental factors that can effect growthurban vs rurual, nuclear or extended families, habitual lifestyle choices

Section 3

Question Answer
What is transition process of moving from a developing country to a developed country.
what are the 6 types of transitioneconomic, demographic, socio-political, behavioural, nutritional, epidemiologic
Economic transitionshift towards a market economy. Control economy, taxation to benefit society.
Demographic transitionshift by greater longevity of people - people are living longer and maintaining there health. Producing fewer children. Change in the structure of society from triangle to large at top and bottom and thin in middle.
Socio-political transition linked to national transition
Behavioural transition outdoor behaviour playing to computer games/tv/technology
nutritional transition shift from traditional diet from high in fibre, to cheap diets high in fat and low fibre, fast food etc
Epidemiologic tranitiondying from non communicable disease instead of infectious.

Section 4

Question Answer
what influences SESeducation, employment, income, housing, food
socioeconomic status, 3 factors 1. commodities 2.maternal education. 3.Paternal occupation
commodities ownership factorwhat they own, phones, refrigeration etc
maternal education factorfundamentally important; functional literacy which allows them to take actions from what they read.
paternal occupation factorin low income countries, males most likely to be breadwinner
How do the 3 factors/ SES level effect on height growth (z scores)in LEDC in soeto. By 5 years of age, big different in height depending on SES, those who are in high SES much taller. Marterel says; the amount of height lost at 2 years is never regained. Children who are stunted also have reduced cognitive ability.
How do the 3 factors / SES level effect weightweight effected but not as much as height. so have a high weight for height.
Height at 7yrs/ compared to total number of children in family more children you have the shorter they are and the highest social class have taller height. (so SES related to average height of children)
Menarcheal age of daughters compared to rank in SES higher ranked SES groups have daughters who have menarche at a younger age. Are some outliers.

Section 5

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