Growth week 9 part 1

winniesmith2's version from 2018-01-13 17:19

Section 1

Question Answer
What is endocrinology branch of the biological sciences concerned with hormones, the glands that secrete them, and their actions.
Pituitary glandAnterior lobe; ACTH,TSH,GH, PRL,FSH,LH and MSH.
Posterior lobe; Release of oxytocin and ADH.
Pineal glandMelatonin
Pancreas Insulin and glucagon
adrenal glandsAdrenal medulla; Nor/epinephine.
Adrenal cortex; Cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone, androgens.
Thyroid Thyroxine, Triodithyronine,Calcitonin
gonadsTestes; Androgens (testosterone) and inhibin.
Ovaries; Estrogen, progestins, inhibin.
Parathyroid Parathyroid hormone
What is the function of hormones-maintain an optimum internal environment for biochemical processes e.g. temperature regulation.
-respond to external environmental changes e.g. starvation, infection, trauma.
-responsible for a smooth, sequential integration of growth and development.
-contribute to sexual reproduction through gametogenesis, coitus, fertilization, foetal development.
What is the structure of hormones-Amino-acid derivatives; small molecules e.g. thyroid hormones, melatonin.
-Peptide hormones; chains of amino-acids from hypothalamus, pituitary, heart, kidney, thymus, digestive tract, pancreas e.g. growth hormone, prolactin.
-Lipid derivatives; steroids derived from cholesterol from gonads and adrenal gland e.g. testosterone, oestrogen, adrenal androgens.
Hormones; mode of actionadditive, co-operative, preparative, antagonistic.
Few processes under hormonal control are regulated by only one hormone and few hormones have only one role.

Section 2

Question Answer
What is the general control of the endocrine system Hypothalamus-> Regulatory peptide -> pituitary -> Anterior pituitary hormone -> target gland -> hormone.
Growth and metabolism pathway GHRH/GHRIH -> GH -> IGF1 -> Growth and Metabolism
CNS 'permissive' pathway TRH -> TSH -> Thyroxine -> CNS 'permissive'.
Anti-inflam, Anti-stress and anti growth in XS CRH -> ACTH -> Corticotrophins / androgens -> anti-inflam, anti-stress and anti-growth in XS
Growth hormone size 191 amino-acids and molecular weight of 22,000
Growth hormone release patternreleased in pulses, when we first go to sleep, middle of the night (REM sleep) and when we wake up.
What does GH do Causes growth promotion and intermediary metabolism.
What does growth promotion do Skeletal-> IGF's -> Skeletal growth. Extra skeletal -> IGF's -> Protein synthesis. (Cell proliferation).
How does GH effect Intermediary metabolism Fat -> lipolysis. Carbohydrate -> increased blood glucose & other anti-insulin effects.

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