Growth week 6

winniesmith2's version from 2018-01-14 17:22

Section 1

Question Answer
biological markers of maturity; using modellingacceleration/change is cause by the release of sex/growth hormones- underlining factor forcing that change. Using growth data, allows us to predict whats going to happen, high prediction methods, lauren shearer made technique to predict adult stature from child growth/height- used a lot of football dancers. - non invasive techniques by knowing growth pattern/somatic developmental makers.
read 2 papersmarshal and tanner- assumed they took pubertal ratings on normal children in normal growth in major studies. Not in vivo
issues with skeletal maturitywas worried about radiation exposure, no longer a an issue - 0.003 mSv. 1/10th exposure for air travellers, 1/6th background in uk, bar aberdeen 1/3rd.
Alternative methods for maturity characteristics?-Questionnaires -Self-assessment (Puberty Development Scale - PDS) -Blood bio-markers
menarche is whenon the downside of AGS
Puberty questions for girls are: -Have you started puberty i.e. do you have any pubic hair or have your breasts enlarged since you were a child? -Do you have regular menstrual cycles i.e. periods? -If so, have you been having periods for more than two years? -How old were you when you started to have periods?
Puberty question for boys are -Have you started puberty i.e. do you have any pubic hair or have your genitalia enlarged since you were a child? -Has your voice broken i.e. do you speak in a deeper voice then when you were a child? -If so, have you been speaking in a deeper voice for more than two years? -How old were you when your voice broke? -Do you shave? -How often do you shave e.g. per week/month? -When did you start shaving?
What is Kappa value/coefficient , study page 45the degree of concordance, moderate levels 0.4-0.6 (so around 0.5/0.6 is good but below 0.4 is low). In most cases, these questions showed high (≥ 0.80) sensitivity and specificity for detecting the mentioned puberty periods.
Validity of self-assessed sexual maturation against physician assessments and hormone levelssaliva analysis. spearmans correlation; compare ranks. Pearsons; parametric test, uses numbers/absolute numbers. SP- comparing self to physician- girls are better, good correlation coefficient. Boys- bad for genitalia but better for pubic hair. ST- self versus true values, girls better. PT- pretty spot on.
Wisconsin,USA study Puberty Development Scale (PDS) v Picture Based Interview about Puberty (PBIP) v Physical exam (physician). N=160 boys= 82; girls = 78. used gonadal signals and adrenal signals. Results page 51.
Self-assessment summary -Questions demonstrate a good concordance between self assessment and physician’s assessment. -Self assessments from pictures have moderate concordance with physician’s assessments. -Concordance from PDS and PBIP is modest except for PBIP and Physicians assessment which is good. -Boys are worse than girls in general except for PH. -Early and late developers are worse than average developers.

Section 2

Question Answer
Biomarkers of the HPG axishypothalamus controlled by nervous system and feedback - Threshold values of gonadotrophins and sex steroids from body fluids?
where is the pituitary glandby the optic chiasm, mid brain, below the hypothalamus - connected buy infundibulum.
What was compared in girls FSH,LH, Inhibin A/B and estradiol, compared to tanner stage. pattern of change co ordinated with tanner scale.
What was compared in boysFSH, LH, inhibin B and testosterone (and estradiol). change same as in tanner scale.
Conclusions of Closer review of methods for determining status and age of onset of puberty-Clinical (physicians) assessment were best.
-Growth analysis (SITAR) when longitudinal data height and foot length(?).
-Voice change
Closer review; adolescents opinions -Questionnaires - paper not digital. -Growth – height, foot length (sometimes have different shoe sizes) -Voice change -Same sex professional

Section 3

Question Answer
Maturational Variation Variation within a single process and between different processes
Maturity processes-Skeletal maturation -Dental maturation -Sexual maturation
maturity events -Menarche -Spermarche -Voice change -Peak Height Velocity -95% adult height
sequence of pubertal eventssame sequence for within sexes but different for between. Girls reach PHV early in development, and boys late (2 years later). Pubic hair second thing to occur - after breast development/genitalia.
puberty v somatic growth; girls page 7 compare with boys. stop growing before there pubertal development is complete. physical maturity before pubertal maturity.
puberty v somatic growth; boyspage 8 compare with girls. males pubertal development happens early in there maturity/growth. pubertal maturity before physical maturity.
girls v boys - why theory- due to the advantages envolved in reproductive success. that it is a fact of being a human that males are going to end up coupling with women that are younger. Men are not going to be the peers of girls. Men are sexually mature earlier so they can practice but not pose a threat to older mature and sexually mature males. - social explanation.

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