Growth- lecture 3

winniesmith2's version from 2017-11-07 19:14

Section 1

Question Answer
What happens during adolescence?hormonal changes, independence- working etc, relationship changes, responsibility, diet, freedom, stop exercising, taking risks, sexually active
How do you get from distance to velocitytake the derivative (difference in height / difference in time). To work out acceleration, take the derivative of velocity.
Childhood lastsabout 2-7 very hormone dependent.
Juvenile stagethe point where the child/juvenile could theoretically live on there own 7-10/12. Ends at different time points for boys (closer to 12) and girls (closer to 10). Ends at the lowest point of the curve.
Adulthoodgrowing less than 1cm a year. Why? to avoid error/ difference in measurements.
Adolescent characteristics increase in velocity (AGS). A period of life/growth course. Not puberty (just happens at the same time, drives the peak).
Characteristics of AGS, make sure you know;-Magnitude -Timing -Definitions of early, average, late -Tempo of somatic growth (not puberty) -Implications of early v late timing -Factors influencing AGS
Magnitude of AGSpeak height velocity
Timing of AGSage of peak height velocity. Take off? point when change from juvenile to adolescence.
Sexual dimorphisms in growth heightgirls go through adolescence and puberty earlier than boys. Less severe magnitude, stop growing earlier. Whereas boys start later and keep growing for 2 more years.
Variation in the timing of AGS- why align them?to move from an age scale to a developmental scale to look at the tempo.
TempoSpeed of which individuals achieve adult height. Slow tempo, go through growth spurt later and achieve adult height later. Mix of environment and genes (approx 60% genetic)
Variation in the timing of AGS- how to work out average curveCross sectional mean curve (work out average of each point), mean constant curve (working out mean constant of curve using curve data - longitudinal ). Allows researchers to work out what is/isn't normal.
Early maturerhave higher growth velocity, but stop growing earlier (so on average are shorter- not the same for weight).

Section 2

Question Answer
What factors influence adolescent growth?Metabolism, Air pollution/ other pollutants, exercise, ethnicity, stress, war, famine, socioeconomic status. Everything.
What are the implications of an early adolescent growth spurt?adulthood disease. on average; the people who have an earlier growth spurt tend to develop diseases earlier. Cardiovascular disease etc. Later growth spurt linked with certain cancers. All growth is indicative to the environment you live in and the environment your parents and grandparents lived in.
Somatic changes in growth at adolescence ; Differences in size and distribution of-Linear dimensions -Muscle -Fat -Bone
Somatic changes in growth at adolescence ;-Cardiovascular capacity -Respiratory capacity -Functional ability
What changes happen during adolescence that lead to increased strength and endurance. -Heart and lungs become bigger absolutely and in relation to body size -Systolic Blood Pressure rises -Heart Rate slows -Respiratory rate slows -Blood haemoglobin increases therefore greater O2 carrying capacity -More efficient neutralisation of chemical products of exercise e.g. lactic acid
Sexual dimorphisms in men that occur in adolescence. broader shoulders, more muscle mass, thinner hips, greater strength, more fat around stomach (abdominal)
sexual dimorphisms in women that occur in adolescencewider hips, less broad shoulders, less muscle mass, more subcutaneous fat, more fat around legs and bum (gluteo-femoral)
Sexual dimorphisms; deathwomen tend to live longer. As men have more mobile fat that can go to arteries... lead to CVD.

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