Growth and development

xologayu's version from 2016-04-28 21:44


Question Answer
Growtha physiologic increase in size through cell multiplication or differentiation
Developmentphysiological, psychosocial, and cognitive, changes occurring over one’s life span. Leads to new activities and behavior patterns.
Infantbirth-1 year
Toddler1-3 years
Preschooler3-6 years
School-age child6-12 years
Adolescent12-19 years or older
Freudjus not right i only learnt about 5 stages
EriksonPsychosocial theory
iidkCognitive development theory
KohlbergMoral development theory


Freud’s Psychosexual Theory
Question Answer
3 components Id=unconscious mind. Ego=conscious mind. Superego=conscience
Freud’s stages 5 stages Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
Oral Stage- Birth to one year of age. Major source of pleasure is centered on oral activities i. e. sucking, biting, and chewing
Anal Stage 1 to 3 years of age. Interest centers on anal region as sphincter muscles develop
Phallic StageAge 3 to 6 years of age. Interest center around genitals. Children recognize differences between sexes.
Latency Stageage 6 to 12 years. Interest is centered on gaining knowledge and on play.
Genital StageAge 12 years and older. Maturation of reproductive system and production of sex hormones.


Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
Question Answer
5 stages Trust versus Mistrust. Autonomy versus shame and doubt. Initiative versus guilt. Industry versus inferiority. Identity versus role confusion
Trust vs MistrustBirth to 1 year. Establishment of trust in response to basic needs
Autonomy vs Shame and DoubtAge 1 to 3 years. Centered on increasing ability to control their bodies, themselves, and their environment.
Initiative vs GuiltAge 3 to 6 years. Interest centers on exploration of the world. Develops conscience
Industry vs inferiorityAge 6 to 12 years. Interest centers on tasks. Learn to rules and learn to cooperate
Identity vs Role Confusion Age 12 to 18 years, Rapid and marked physical changes. Preoccupied with self and appearance.


Piaget’s Cognitive Development
Question Answer
4 StagesSensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete operations, Formal operations
Sensorimotor StageBirth to age 2 years. Consists of 6 sub stages. Governed by sensations in which simple learning takes place. Development of sense of “cause-and-effect”. Development of object permanence
Preoperational Stage Age 2 to 7 years. Characterized by egocentrism, unable to put oneself in another’s place. Thinking is concrete and tangible, cannot reason beyond the observable.
Concrete operationsAge 7 to 11 years. Thought is logical and coherent. Able to problem solve.
Formal Operation Age 11 to 15 years, Thinking is adaptable and flexible, Can think in abstract terms and can draw conclusions


Kohlberg’s Moral Development
Question Answer
3 Stages Preconventional level, Conventional level, Post conventional level
Preconventional Level Age 1 to 3 years of age-Understand concept of good and bad. Age 3 to 6 year- Understand concept of right behavior
Conventional Level Age 6 to 12 years Consists of obeying the rules. Concerned with loyalty and conformity
Post conventional Level Age 12 to 18 years Formal operations. Development of ethics


Physiological Development of Infants
Question Answer
Height in first yearincreases by approximately 1 foot during first year of life
Weight at 6 month and 1 year- doubles at 6 months, triples at 1 year
Head circumference equals chest circumference by1 year
Motor development Gross Motor- Able to use large muscle groups to maintain balance and for locomotion. Fine Motor- Able to coordinate hand-to-eye movement in an orderly manner


Gross Motor Skills
Question Answer
Infants-Hand control, rolling over, sitting, and crawling
Toddlers-Walking, jumping
Preschool-riding a tricycle, skipping, and jumping rope
School age-Organized sports


Fine Motor Skills
Question Answer
Infants-Hold bottle and banging objects
Toddlers-Throw a ball overhand, build towers, and grasp small objects
Preschool-Drawing and dressing
School age- Cursive writing


Question Answer
Piagets’ Sensorimotor Stage is equivalent to what stage for erikson, and freud?Erikson’s Trust versus Mistrust, Freud’s Oral Stage
Anticipatory GuidancePreventive measures, Provide information to parents based on child’s developmental stage, Priority is always to prevent injury, Stranger and Separation Anxiety
Teeth eruption starts at age6-8 months
Can roll over4-6 months
Sits alone6-8 months
Crawls8-10 months
Stand alone10-12 months


Question Answer
Using monosyllabic babbling occurs between3 6 months of age
Use of mama occurs between9 and 12 months of age
Linking syllables together occurs between6 and 9 months
Cooing begins at birth and continues until2 months of age


Question Answer
Freud’s Phallic equivalent to which stage for Erikson, Piaget, and KohlbergErikson’s- Initiative versus Guilt. Piaget’s- Preoperational Stage. Kohlberg’s- Preconventional Stage.
Physiological DevelopmentDecreased appetite


Question Answer
Freud’s Anal stage equivalent to which stage for Erikson, Piaget, and KohlbergErikson’s-Autonomy versus Shame and doubt. Piaget’s- Sensorimotor and Preconceptual Phase Kohlberg’s
Anticipatory GuidanceTemper Tantrums, Toilet Training, Negativism”No”
Can undress self1-2 years
Walks alone12 months-14 months


Growth and Development of the Pre-schooler
Question Answer
Physiological Development Physical Growth slows, Body systems mature
Physiological Development Gross and fine motor developmentIncreased eye-hand coordination, Improved muscle coordination, Development of fine motor skills
Anticipatory GuidanceNightmares and night terrors, Diversion of aggressive behaviors, Set limits, Readiness for preschool and kindergarten, Should start routine dental visits at age 3 years
Developmental Milestones for PreschoolersThrows a ball overhand, Climbs well, Buttons clothes


Growth and Development of the School-Aged Child
Question Answer
Physiological Development Weight/Height increases, Heart Rate slows, Respiratory Rate slows, Looses baby teeth, “Ugly ducking” phase
Freud’s: Latency equivalent to which stage for Erikson, Piaget, and KohlbergErikson’s- Industry versus Inferiority, Piaget’s- Concrete operations, Kohlberg’s-Conventional Level
Anticipatory GuidanceSchool=work, Peers important relationship, Nutrition counseling for obesity prevention, Lying and cheating
Developmental Milestone for School-ageCan read, Jumps rope, Can roller skate


Growth and Development of the Adolescent
Question Answer
Physiological Development Time of puberty with development of secondary sex characteristics, maturation of sexual organs. Able to reproduce. Physiological Development Adolescent growth spurt
Females peak height velocity at approximately age 11 or 6-12 months before menarche
Males peak height velocity at approximately age13
Weight increase follows same growth curve as height.
Freud’s- Genital equivalent to which stage for Erikson, Piaget, and KohlbergErikson’s-Identity versus Role Confusion. Piaget’s-Formal. Kohlberg’s- Post Conventional
Anticipatory GuidanceSexual Relationships, Peers biggest influence, Depression, Drug/Alcohol Use
Developmental Milestones for Adolescents Muscle development accelerates. Some lack of coordination during growth spurt


Question Answer
1. There are _______ major developmental periods in in childhood.five
2. Growth and development proceeds in a _________ pattern.predictable
3. There are specific periods of __________ in infants and adolescents.increased physical growth
4. Erikson has _________ stage of pyschosocial development.5
5. Piaget has __stages of cognitive development.4
6. There are ____ levels of moral development in Kohlberg’s theory.3
7. Each developmental stage of childhood has specificphysiological development, unique developmental milestones, and need for anticipatory guidance.