Growth 5

winniesmith2's version from 2017-11-03 21:55

Section 1

Question Answer
Physical Activity “any bodily movement produced by the skeletal muscles that results in a substantial increase in energy expenditure above resting” levels”
Exercise “physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and results in improvement or maintenance of one or more facets of physical fitness”
Training Systematic, specialized practice for a specific sport or sport discipline for most of the year or to specific short term training programmes. Quite specific – (endurance running, strength training, sport skill training)
Phsyical fitness “a set of attributes (cardiorespiratory endurance, power, etc.) that people have or achieve that relate to their ability to perform physical activity
Regular PA and growth and development of children can be thought of in what 5 general areas; 1. PA and height, weight and body composition 2. PA and biological maturation 3. PA and physical fitness 4. PA and health 5. Training for sport and the growth and development of young athletes
What constitutes a young athlete?Definition often vague: -Status of a youth athlete is usually defined based on success in: +School or club teams +Chronological age group competition +Regional, national or international competition
What is the 'catch them young philosophy' to start training them before puberty.
What are characteristics of a young athlete-Long hours of systematic repetitive training -Dietary regulation -Special schooling -Separation from family
What is happening to the number of young athletes? and what does this mean? Number of children and adolescents competing in sports at regional, national and international levels is increasing. Systematic training and specialization in boys and girls is occurring at relatively young ages. Therefore, the young athlete must be considered when examining growth and development of children and adolescents.
What do you need to take into consideration when looking at training - That training programs vary considerably. -Within and across studies problems arise in measuring, specifying and quantifying training. -Most studies classify training as ‘mild’, ‘moderate’ or ‘severe’, without any clear definitions

Section 2

Question Answer
What was the aim of the Training of young athlete (TOYA) study to establish the positive and negative effects of intensive training within four sports: gymnastics, football (boys only), swimming and tennis. Looking at English and Welsh athletes.
Why/when did the TOYA study start Commissioned by the Sports Council in 1986 following growing concern about the negative effects of intensive training on children. Mixed-longitudinal study. Information provided by the study was needed to improve our knowledge of the effect intensive training routines have on injury rates, growth and psychological well-being of young people.
Height and weight of young athletes -Trends in average heights and weights of young athletes are sport dependent. -Generally heights that equal or exceed the reference medians: Which sports differ from this norm? (bar gymnastics, diving, figure skating and ballet). Body weights present a similar pattern: Young athletes tend to have weights that on average equal or exceed reference standards
Body composition of athletes -Athletes generally have less fat mass than non-athletes of the same age and sex. -Male athletes show a relative decline in fatness during adolescence: (This is consistent with nonathletic males. However, athletes have less fatness at most ages) -Females athletes also have relatively less fat mass: -(Relative fatness shows little variation during adolescence in athletes whereas in non-athletic females it increases -Relative fatness differences (between athletes and non-athletes) are greater in females than in males).
Percentage body fat of youth male athleteslower than average population for all sports apart from swimming (where it might be advantageous due to buoyancy.
Percentage body fat of youth female athleteslower than average population for all sports.
Maturity status for male athletes tend to be at average time or early. - could mean that those who mature earlier are selected for the sport because they do better or have more of a presence on the pitch than those who do not.
Maturity status for female athletesfemale athletes tend to be average maturing. and Later maturing females tend to be at an advantage over later maturing males in sport - normally because being smaller and having a smaller physique is advantageous for them in there sport, for example in gymnastics or ballet. chosen more often over mature girls who are gaining mass.

Section 3

Question Answer
Gymnastics age at peak height velocity normally later age than of the range of means for nonathletes, for both boys and girls.
Rate of peak height velocity in gymnasts At a lower rate than the mean of the population in both maths and females. - rate and age of PHV suggests that gymnasts are just growing at a lower velocity but for longer periods of time - therefore are still in average range.
Skeletal age-chronological age difference (boys)- describe study No specific sport training before 11 years in either group. Graph shows difference between SA and CA for two samples of Czech boys, one that chose to train for sport the other not. Both had no specific sport training before 11 years of age. Those that chose to train in track and basketball and persisted training between 11 and 18 years were consistently advanced in skeletal maturity.
TOYA- testicular volume/ biological maturity All within the normal range, all ending up around the 50th percentile but gymnasts drop away from 50th percentile before increase at end. pg 34
Age of Menarche in athletes VS non-athletesStill follow normal curve but non-athletes tend to have it earlier than athletes. Average is still the same around 13.5 years.
TOYA- age of menarche in athletes and her motherone interpretation; that athletes had a period at a later age than there mothers. Another could be; that it isn't a good comparison because the mothers may not be recalling it correctly, haven't included when siblings had theres, could be genetic, follow similar pattern to mothers- around median or not. Variation in population anyway. May have been selected BECAUSE of this and its not the exercise causing this.
Does training influence growth and development of young athletes?-Data suggests ‘delayed’ and ‘advanced’ maturity in many athlete groups- Based on findings from cross-sectional studies. BUT Longitudinal studies show normal growth in athletes, may be due to maturity and selection in to sports.

Recent badges