Group Properties of Elements Part 4

allelipraise's version from 2017-07-27 14:38

Section 1

Question Answer
Group IVA: Carbon FamilyC and Si – first two "short period“ members, unlike other members, they are nonmetallic.
Group IVA: Carbon FamilyThe bonding of this group is predominantly covalent
Group IVA: Carbon FamilyOxides of C and Si are acidic, those of other elements of the group are amphoteric
Carbon (C)Basic building unit of organic compounds
Carbon (C) Can form multiple bonds with itself – catenation organic compounds (chain formation)
Silicon (Si)2nd most abundant element on earth
Silicon (Si)Forms an inert oxide, silicon dioxide (Silica)
Siliceous EarthsUsed as mild abrasives
SilicosisLung condition resembling chronic TB, which develops after long exposure (7 years or more) to respirable dust (silica particles 5 μm or less in mean diameter)
AsbestosisPulmonary condition similar to silicosis
Talc (Mg3(OH)2Si4O10)Softest mineral – Used in dusting powders as protective and lubricant, and filter aid
Glass generic term used to identify vitreous silicate minerals prepared by fusing a base, such as Na2CO3 & CaCO3, with pure silica
Glass:MnO2masks the blue-green color of the iron usually present in silica
Glass: K+gives brown and light resistant glass
Glass:Boratesreduce coefficient of expansion

Section 2

Question Answer
Germanium (Ge)Purported to have immune system enhancing and antitumor effects.
Germanium (Ge)Has remarkable electrical properties – valuable in the manufacture of semiconductors and other microelectronic parts
Tin (Sn)Both hydroxides are amphoteric
Tin dioxide preparationsGermicidal effect, particularly against staphylococcal organisms that are often resistant to other germicides
Lead (Pb)Most metallic element of group IVA
Lead (Pb)cumulative poison – Absorbed readily in the GIT and broken skin, and is deposited in bones.
Titanium (Ti)Forms three oxides – TiO – Ti2O3 – TiO2 (official in USP)
TiO2• used as a solar-ray protective; as such, popular ingredient in various lotions and creams for prevention of sunburn
Zirconium (as the hydrous oxide or carbonate)has been used as a lotion or cream for contact dermatitis.

Section 3

Question Answer
Nitrogen (N)Occurs free in the atmosphere (78%)
Nitrogen (N)Can form triple-bond structure, hence the N2 molecule shows little reactivity with other elements, but the free nitrogen atom is very reactive.
Nitrogen (N) Prepared by fractional distillation of liquid air.
Nitrite ion Reacts with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin.
Nitrite ion They can form N-nitroso derivatives of amines and amides which may be carcinogenic
Nitrite ionreducible in the intestine and may cause methemoglobinemia.
Nitric Oxide (NO)An important neurotransmitter causing vasodilation – lowers BP
Phosphorus (P)Almost insoluble in water, but soluble in Chloroform, benzene or carbon disulfide
Phosphorus (P):wo common allotropesAlmost insoluble in water, but soluble in Chloroform, benzene or carbon disulfide
Arsenic (As)Lewisite metal
Arsenic (As)Component of Salvarsan, Arsphenamine
Arsenic (As):Toxicity As 3+ toxic – binds to –SH of enzymes (keratin) and bones – As 5+ – nontoxic – Manifestation: Mees’ lines – dark discoloration of nails
Arsenic (As):Antidote Antidote: BAL/Dimercaprol (IM – if absorbed); Mg(OH)2 & Fe3+ mixture (oral – if As is still in GIT)
Antimony Potassium Tartrate tartar emetic
Antimony Sodium Tartrate USP Used in the treatment of schistosomiasis (flukes)
Bismuth (Bi)– Milk of Bismuth: antacids (-OH and CO32- ions)
Colloidal bismuth subcitrateClinically used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease.
Bismuth (Bi)Causes black stools
Bismuth (Bi):toxicityDimercaprol IM/BAL

Section 4

Question Answer
TantalumUnaffected by the body fluids, it is used in sheet form for the surgical repair of bones.
Oxygen (O)Most abundant element • 2nd most electronegative element
Oxygen (O)n free form, it constitutes about 1/5 of air, by weight. In combined form, about 7/8, by weight, of water and other fractional parts of minerals (CaCO3 or Fe2O3).
Sulfur (S)Exists in different allotropic forms
Sulfur (S)Scabicide, keratolytic, fungicidal, cathartic
Selenium and Telluriumanalogous to sulfur.
Selenium oxic at large doses (contact dermatitis), but an important trace element.
Chromium (Cr)Glucose tolerance factor
Molybdenum (Mo)Cofactor of flavin dependent enzymes
UraniumBoth acid- and basic-forming
UraniumUsed in the manufacture of atomic bomb
Fluorine (F)present in teeth and bone.
Chlorine (Cl)Very reactive nonmetallic element
Chloride ion carrier of choice for other metal cations
Iodine (I) Effective antimicrobial/Expectorant
Iodine (I)Essential for proper thyroid functioning
Elemental iodine:toxictyAntidote: Sodium thiosulfate and corn starch

Section 5

Question Answer
Bromine (Br)Dark reddish brown, fuming liquid with a suffocating odor.
Bromide has central depressant action
Manganese (Mn)Enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase
Technetium (Tc)First element produced artificially
Rhenium• Very rare element • Employed as a catalyst for dehydrogenation
Helium (He)2nd lightest gas
Helium (He)Used to prepare synthetic airs/artificial airs
Neon (Ne)Used for advertising purposes
Argon (Ar)Most abundant noble gas
Argon (Ar)Substitute for nitrogen as an inert atmosphere for industrial processes
Argon (Ar)By-product of the fractionalization of liquid air for the production of O2 and N2
Krypton (Kr) Least abundant noble gas
Krypton (Kr)/Xenonhave been investigated for possible use as anesthetics
Xenon (Xe)-133Xe Xenonused for diagnostic studies both by inhalation and intravenous injection.

Section 6

Question Answer
Radon (Rd)Synthetic and radioactive noble gas
Radon (Rd)Used in treatment of certain types of cancer
2nd and 3rd triads platinum metals; the term noble metals
1st Iron triads
2nd ight Pt metals
3rd heavy Pt metals
1stIron (Fe), Cobalt (Co) and Nickel (Ni)
2ndRuthenium (Ru), Rhodium (Rh) and Palladium (Pd)
3rdOsmium (Os), Iridium (Ir) and Platinum (Pt)
Iron (Fe)+2(hydrated)Green
Iron (Fe)+2(anhydrous)White
Iron (Fe)+3(hydrated)Yellow to brown
Iron (Fe)+3(anhydrous)Colorish
Iron (II) salts undergo slight hydrolysis
IronFunctions in various cytochromes (oxidative enzymes of the body cells)
Cobalt (Co)Used in the manufacture of beer
Cobalt (Co)(hydrated)red
Cobalt (Co)(Anhydrous)blue
Nickel (Ni)Metal in fancy jewelries
Osmium (Os)Heaviest and densest metal
Platinum (Pt)Catalist/Cisplatin
Pt(cisplatin)Cancer chemotherapy
Palladium (Pd)Catalyst