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Group Properties of Elements Part 3

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allelipraise's version from 2017-07-28 12:51

Section 1

Question Answer
Lithium (Li)Lightest metal
Lithium (Li)Depresses the CNS;Used for mania and hypomanic
Sodium (Na)cation of the extracellular fluids
Potassium (K)cation of the intracellular fluids
Sodium saltsselected more frequently for use on a strictly economic basis.
Potassium saltsmore soluble in nonpolar solvents are less deliquescent than Na salts.
Sodium (Na)Common cation of choice to optimize the pharmaceutical utility of the organic medicaments
Na+promotes retention of fluid in the tissues
Potassium (K)• Has diuretic effect • Causes muscular contraction
Cesium (Cs) Catalyst in the polymerization of resins
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Section 2

Question Answer
Ammonia (NH3)– Coordinated readily with a proton to form the ammonium ion (NH4+) – Mild alkalizer – Volatile (pungent odor)
Ammonia (NH3)Hypothetical alkali metal and its salts resemble K and Rb salts (isoamorphous)
The ammonia in household use10% NH3 (known as 16o ammonia): degrees Baume, a concentration term)
Ammonium SaltsSolutions of ammonium are rather acidic than basic.
Copper (Cu)Only reddish colored metal
Copper (Cu)Small quantities enhance the physiological utilization of iron
Copper (Cu)Occurs in the respiratory pigment hemocyanin
Copper CompoundsProtein precipitants/Fungicide,algaecide,Insecticide
Insecticide(Cu) Copper acetoarsenate
Emetics(Cu)(CuSO4.5H2O)
CuSO4.5H2OBlue vitriol, blue stone
CuSO4.5H2OBasis for Fehling’s and Benedict’s Solutions
CuSO4.5H2OAntidote for phosphorus poisoning
CuSO4.5H2OComponent of bourdeaux mixture
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Section 3

Question Answer
SilverHas oligodynamic action
Germicide(Ag)Can precipitate protein and chloride in the affected tissue
Silver Compounds:Light sensitive must be protected by the use of light-resistant containers
Silver/Be CompoundsSoluble _____salts are toxic
Poisoning(Ag)Argyria
Mild silver protein (Argyrol)antiseptic for the eyes
Strong silver protein (Protargol)antiseptic for ears, nose, and throat
Colloidal silver protein (Colargol)general germicide
Gold (Au)King of all metals
Gold (Au)Chemically unstable to heat, light, and even very mild reducing agents
Gold (Au) • Dissolved by– Aqua regia (royal water) – 3 HCl:1 HNO3 – Selenic Acid
Gold (Au)Compounds are employed for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and arthritis
Beryllium (Be)Amphoteric;Resembles aluminum in its behaviour
Beryllium (Be)most toxic metal
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Section 4

Question Answer
Magnesium (Mg)2nd most plentiful cation inside the cell
Magnesium (Mg)Natural calcium channel blocker
Magnesium (Mg)Lightest of all structurally important metals
Magnesium Compoundsused as gastric antacids
Calcium (Ca)2nd most abundant extracellular cation
Calcium (Ca)Cation of hydroxyapatite, the major constituent (98%) of the bones and teeth
Therapeutic uses: Calcium (Ca) Antacids, and calcium replenishers
Calcium (Ca)Cation of choice to carry therapeutically active anions
Barium (Ba)Chemically the most active of Group IIA
Barium (Ba)Toxicity: Baritosis
Antidote:(Ba) Epsom salt (MgSO4)
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Section 5

Question Answer
Zinc (Zn)Does not occur free in nature
Zinc (Zn)Metal present in insulin
Zinc (Zn)Essential component of carbonic anhydrase and many other enzymes.
Zinc CompoundsEmployed in the treatment of various external surfaces of the body and in wound healing, taste acuity, and various ophthalmic problems
Cadmium (Cd)Intermediate in properties to zinc and mercury
Mercury (Hg)Quicksilver
Mercury (Hg)Best antidote: Sodium Formaldehyde Sulfoxylate NF
Boron (B)Bridge element – certain properties resemble those of silicon
Metalloid (borderline element possessing both metallic and nonmetallic character)
Boron (B)Boiled lobster appearance (red-orange skin) – Dusting powder containing boric acid caused numerous fatalities (infants deaths)
Boron (B)
H3BO3
All common metals, except the alkalies, precipitate as insoluble _______.
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Section 6

Question Answer
Aluminum (Al)Most abundant of the metals (in earth’s crust)
Aluminum (Al)3rd most abundant element
Aluminum (Al)Toxicity: Shaver’s Disease
Aluminum (Al)Many insoluble aluminum compounds find use as gastric antacids
Aluminum (Al)Astringent and antiseptic-used for various skin conditions and in antiperspirants and deodorants
GalliumAppears to be useful in treating cancer-related hypercalcemia
IndiumQuite similar to both aluminum and gallium.
Thalliumused in insecticides, especially ant poisons
Ceriumwidely used analytical reagent
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