Group Properties of Elements Part 2

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Section 1

Question Answer
Elements of Group ICharacterized by having only one valence electron, ns1.
Elements of Group IStrongly metallic, giving rise to cations, M+.
Group IA: The Alkali MetalsOne valence electron outside of a well-shielded core: easily removed, forming monovalent cations.
Group IA: The Alkali Metals: Descended• Ionization potential decreases • Atomic radius increases • Electropositivity increases • Activity increases (correlated with atomic weight) • Oxidation potential increases (except Li) • Degree of solvation of ions decreases
Group IA: The Alkali MetalsMost reactive of all the metallic elements
Group IA: The Alkali MetalsDo not form complexes
Group IA: The Alkali Metals Form white solid hydrides quite readily when heated with hydrogen gas
Group IA: The Alkali MetalsOnly Li readily reacts with Nitrogen, (even at room temp) to form Li3N
Group IA: The Alkali MetalsMost distinguishing properties of the salts and their solutions are due to the anion present, rather than the cation; if they are colored, the anion is responsible.
Group IA: The Alkali MetalsVery active chemically
Group IA: The Alkali MetalsDo not occur free in nature
Group IA: The Alkali MetalsAlkali halides are water soluble and are not hydrolyzed
Group IA: The Alkali MetalsOxides and hydroxides are strongly basic
Group IA: The Alkali MetalsForm simple cations, never occur in complex anions, and do not form complex cations with ammonia
Group IA: The Alkali MetalsRapidly oxidized in air

Section 2

Question Answer
Group IB: The Coinage MetalsEmployed for ornamental and coinage purposes, hence termed as "coinage metals"
Group IB: The Coinage MetalsClosely related to Ni, Pd and Pt
Group IB: The Coinage Metals– Very malleable – Excellent conductors of heat and electricity – Disproportionation
Group IB: The Coinage MetalsOccur free in nature and are easily recovered from their compounds by reduction
Group IB: The Coinage MetalsNot very active chemically (low in electromotive series)
Group IB: The Coinage MetalsOxides and hydroxides are feebly basic (except Ag2O)
Group IB: The Coinage MetalsAg , Cu (I) and Ag (I) halides are nearly insoluble in water. Except Ag halides, they are readily hydrolyzed and form numerous basic salts.
Group IB: The Coinage MetalsCu(I), and Cu(II) each forms a series of compounds; Ag(I), one series; Au(I) and Au(III), one series each.
Group IB: The Coinage MetalsAll of the form complex anion and complex cations with ammonia
Group IB: The Coinage MetalsCu is only oxidized in air, but is rapidly oxidized when finely divided and heated in oxygen.

Section 3

Question Answer
Group II ElementsCharacterized by the presence of two electrons in the outermost orbital (bivalent)
Group IIA: The Alkaline Earth MetalsFunction uniformly in the +2 oxidation state
Group IIA: The Alkaline Earth MetalsThe similarity between Ca, Sr and Ba is especially striking. They react readily with water to form hydroxides & hydrogen gas

Section 4

Question Answer
Group IIB: The Volatile MetalsHave comparatively low boiling points
Group IIB: The Volatile MetalsThe common oxidation state is +2, but Hg also exhibits in the +1 state
Group IIB: The Volatile MetalsOnly Zn is sufficiently amphoteric to form stable oxygen complex, ZnO22

Section 5

Question Answer
Group IIIATheoretically two oxidation states are possible – The first, +1, arises by the loss of the single p electron. The resulting helide structure, ns2, has sufficient stability to give rise to stable ions such as Ga+, In+, and Tl+
Group IIIAWith the loss of all three valence electrons the +3 oxidation state appears in all the elements of the family.
Group IIIA– With increasing atomic number, the +3 state becomes more electrovalent in character.
Group IIIAMembers of this family give rise to an interesting series of double salts, the alums.
alums common formulaM+2M3+2(SO4)4.24H2O
prototype (alum)K2Al2(SO4)4.24H2O
Group IIIBHave an increasing metallic character as the atomic number increases, with less tendency towards covalency.

Section 6

Question Answer
Elements of Group IVEach has four valence electrons, two of which are s electrons (+4 oxidation state)
Elements of Group IVForm inert pair ions, except carbon and silicon
Elements of Group IVExcept for the larger atoms, many of the compounds are covalent or predominantly covalent
Group IVA: Carbon FamilyC and Si – first two "short period“ members, unlike other members, they are nonmetallic.
Group IVA: Carbon FamilyThe bonding of this group is predominantly covalent
Group IVA: Carbon FamilyOxides of C and Si are acidic, those of other elements of the group are amphoteric
Group VA: The Nitrogen FamilyN and P are both nonmetallic, As is a metalloid, and Sb & Bi are metals
Group VA: The Nitrogen FamilyOxidation states: +3 and +5
Group VA: The Nitrogen FamilyOxides of N and P are acidic.

Section 7

Question Answer
Elements of Group VIHave six valence electrons.
Group VIA: The Chalcogensdensities and atomic volume increase with atomic number.
Group VIA: The ChalcogensAs group is descended, electronegativity decreases, nonmetallic character decreases.
Group VIA: The Chalcogens General formula for oxides: XO2 and XO3
Group VIB– Metallic– lower oxidation state oxides – basic, while higher oxidation state – acidic, giving rise to chromates, molybdates, and tungstates.
Elements of Group VII The halogens are nonmetallic in character; the transition elements of the family are metallic
Group VIIBMetallic-Higher oxides give rise to very stable oxo-salts with the +6 and +7 oxidation states, such as MnO4- , TcO4-, and ReO4-
Group VIIBCompounds of these elements are colored

Section 8

Question Answer
Group 0/VIIIA: The Inert GasesAll group 0 elements except radon occur in the atmosphere
Group 0/VIIIA: The Inert Gases • Monoatomic • Colorless, odorless gases
Group 0/VIIIA: The Inert Gases produced from liquid air by fractional distillation.
Group 0/VIIIA: The Inert GasesHave high ionization potentials

Section 9

Question Answer
Elements of Group VIIIBTriads – 1st: Iron (Fe), Cobalt (Co) and Nickel (Ni) – 2nd: Ruthenium (Ru), Rhodium (Rh) and Palladium (Pd) – 3rd: Osmium (Os), Iridium (Ir) and Platinum (Pt)
– 1st Iron triads
– 2nd light Pt metals
– 3rd heavy Pt metals