What are the different types of diversity that may be present in a group?
|Informational diversity||member differences in knowledge bases and perspectives|
|Surface-level diversity||demographic and physical characteristics|
|Deep-level diversity||attitudinal, belief and value difference|
Know how the similarity-attraction paradigm explains our discomfort with diversity and how we can improve group effectiveness.
|Similarity attraction paradigm||tendency to be attracted to and to like people who are similar to us in interests, attitudes, values, and demographics.|
|Remind yourself of the||rewards of interacting with diverse others.|
|Also remind yourself of the||similarities among all people.|
|Avoid jumping to the conclusion that||different others will not like you|
|Override the tendency to||distance yourself from people who are different than you.|
|If you experience culture||shock-hang in there.|
Know how the social categorization paradigm explains people’s common discomfort with diversity? According to this model, how can we improve effectiveness in the diverse group?
|Social categorization paradigm-emphasizes that||we categorize members according to preexisting stereotypes, leading to biased perceptions and interactions.|
|Question ||Answer |
|Be aware of and question||your own stereotypes.|
|Work to form||accurate impressions|
|Ask yourself||what stereotypes you have about these people|
|Look beyond||your past experience.|
|If you are tired, distracted, or busy||be careful and don't stereotype.|
What group process challenges face diverse groups and how can these be dealt with?
|Challenge 1|| minority group members are isolated|
|Challenge 2||Increased turnover|
|Challenge 3||Unconscious communications|
|Challenge 5||Increased conflict due to style and culture|
|Challenge 6||Development of ingroups and outgroups.|
|Solution 1||Create opportunities for socializing|
|Solution 2||Solicit input from new minority members|
|Solution 3||Create a superordinate identity|
|Solution 4||As a group create a shared understanding of tasks, etc.|
|Solution 5||All sides should listen.|
|Solution 6||Talk about the group's performance and success.|
What is “multiculturalism’ and why is additive multiculturalism recommended over subtractive multiculturalism?
|Multiculturalism||unique cultural attributes of different cultures.|
|Additive||the idea that we should respond to diversity by working to understand and appreciate other groups and integrate diverse perspectives.|
|Subtractive||The idea that people should give up their unique cultural attributes to fit with the majority culture.|
|What is intercultural competence?||The ability to interact, effectively with people from other cultures|
|What value is there in diversity according to the value-in-diversity hypothesis?||Value in diversity hypothesis - Diversity in groups offers distinct benefits, such as greater creativity and better problem solving.|
What are the different cultural dimensions identified by Hofstede and how do these influence group behavior?
|Power distance||In a culture the amount of respect and deference less powerful subordinate members generally give to more powerful superior members. Example in Latin American countries|
|Uncertainty avoidance||The degree to which individuals in a society feel uncomfortable with situations that are unstructured, unclear, or unpredictable. Example: Japan|
|Individualism/collectivism||The extent to which individuals in a society view themselves as individuals or as part of a group. Example US individualistic verses Japan collective|
|Masculinity/femininity||Whether a society's dominant values emphasize assertiveness and materialism (masculine) or other centeredness and quality of life (feminine)|
How can you increase your multicultural group skills?
|1||Recognize and override your ethnocentrism|
|2||Do not demand that others assimilate|
|3||Learn about other cultures|
|4||Be aware of your own cultures influence|
|5||Encourage others to value diversity|
|6||Platinum rule-treat others the way they want to be treated.|