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Group Dynamics Ch3

Updated 2007-02-07 21:15

Chapter 3

Why do groups have norms and how do they develop? What are institutional norms, voluntary norms, and evolutionary norms?

Purpose of norms are topromote smooth functioning (group locomotion).
Purpose of norms are to providepredictability and comfort (heuristic value)-short cut decision making-you know the norms.
Norms contribute togroupness-uniqueness.
Groups arise three waysinstitutional, voluntary, and evolutionary.
Institutional normsnorms that originate in a group’s leader or external authorities.
Voluntary normsNorms negotiated by a group, often to resolve conflict and promote smooth functioning.
Evolutionary normsNorms originating in a member’s response to a situation that is adopted as a norm by the group.
What are normative and informational pressure Normative pressure-conform due to need for acceptance.
Social impact theory
Strength and immediacy in numbers.
Question Answer
Loose cultures like the US. Prevent and deal with violations by making norms explicit and dealing with violators promptly
Informational pressureCopy and follow like religion or political groups. Conform due to uncertainty.
Sherif study autokinetic group.?

What is pluralistic ignorance? What guidelines are given in the chapter regarding informational pressure and group effectiveness?

Pluralistic ignorance.Groups may form opinions based on misinformation/misinterpretations.
To avoid Pluralistic ignorance, members shouldask questions, seek evidence, encourage decisions, leaders should share information.
Pluralistic ignoranceoccurs when group members mistakenly assume that others know what is going on, a backfiring of informational pressure.
Pluralistic ignorance GuidelinesAvoid pluralistic ignorance. Know the facts, don’t assume. Ask questions, seek evidence, and encourage discussion.
To stop Pluralistic ignorance and you are a leader it is best toshare information
To stop Pluralistic ignorance be open and specific aboutthe sentiments of the group or leaders. Example overstating your peers supporting over consumption.

What is said in the chapter about culture, gender, and normative pressure? Know about “tight” cultures versus “loose” cultures and individualistic cultures versus collectivistic cultures. Culture, Gender, Normative Pressure

Tight culturescultures in which norms are clear and reliable imposed and deviance is punished through criticism and rejection. Example is Japan.
Loose culturesCultures in which norms are less clear and deviance is tolerated. Example the US
Individual cultures versus collectivistic culturesCollectivistic cultures emphasize the importance of the group and community and the value of conformity. Result conformity. Asia, Africa and South American cultures are examples.
Individualistic cultures emphasizethe importance of the individual, value independence, and view conformity negatively. Examples: The US, Netherlands, Great Britain, Canada.

Know the three factors specified by social impact theory that influence conformity. Conformity depends on:

Strengthhow important the group of people is to you
Immediacyhow close the group is in space and time
NumberHow many people are in the group

What guidelines are given in the chapter regarding normative pressure and group effectiveness?

Need to ____ when a norm has been violatedclearly point out when a norm has been violated. Immediate feedback
Do things thatfoster cohesiveness
Enlist high status group members tohelp change or create new norms. “everyone is doing it)
To really find out what group members thinkask them privately and, ideally, anonymously. This will reduce the influence of normative pressure.
Make desired normsclear and specific.

What are the two main theories of minority influence? How can minority influence be important to a group and enhance group effectiveness?

Minority influence-stimulates us to - take in more information and make better decisions. Minority views create stress, anger, and irritations in a group. They can both positively and negatively affect a group. Disasters allow for minority dissent. Minority influence can enhace a group decision.

How do new members learn the norms of a group and how can this process be facilitated? What is “socialization” in group dynamics terms?

Socialization isthe process by which new group members learn the norms of the group. They can formalize the norms, Assign a mentor. Old members need to remember what it was like for them to make it easier for a new person.
How should we respond to norm violations in a group?Leaders should respond quickly to norm violations. Assertively confront the violator.

What differences would you expect between a group that has norms of cooperation and one that has norms of competition?

Cooperation-norms encouraging member to support one another toward the achievement of group’s goals
Competition-normssupportive of members’ seeking personal goals at the expense of other members.

What guidelines are provided for increasing group effectiveness in the section called “Productivity Norms and Improving Group Effectiveness’?

Question Answer
New normsIdentify and clearly communicate norms, especially new ones
Assigna mentor to new c\group members
Do notbe rigid about norms
Examine norms to see ifoutdated or arbitrary or counterproductive
Deal with a norm violationimmediately
Ask formembers input on creating norms
As a leaderdeal with the norm violation
Do not have memberscompete with each other for limited rewards
Ask the group aboutsetting production goals
Antagonistic relationship withmembers with counterproductive norms.

Why do groups have roles? What are: role differentiation, role ambiguity, and role conflict? What are task roles? What are socioemotional roles?

Rolesso everyone has a job or position-structure
Role differentiationThe development of distinct roles in the group that occurs as group members take on different assignments.
Role ambiguityConfusion about what our role is in the group or what is expected of us in our role.
Role conflictWhen the various demands of our role conflict (intrarole conflict) or when the demands of several roles we occupy conflict with one another (interrole conflict)
Task rolesroles focused on getting the job don, including providing information, focusing the discussion on tasks, and assigning work.
Socioemotional rolesroles centered on satisfying the emotional needs of group members by encouraging others, mediating conflicts, and providing warmth and praise. Examples are harmonizers, encouragers, expediters.

What recommendations are made in the section on roles and group effectiveness?

Reduce role ambiguity byclarifying role expectations
Reduce misunderstandings and confusion bydiscussing role expectations.
Reduce intrarole conflict bygiving members role assignments that don’t compete.
Don’t developsuch rigid role expectations that you can’t respond to change.
Assign roles based on qualifications rather thandemographic variables such as gender, age, or ethnicity.