Group 4, lesson 13; respiratory and gastrointestinal drugs

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respiratory drugs :

Question Answer
what is pulmonologythe study of respiratory diseases
what are bronchodilators and corticosteroids used forrespiratory inflammation
what are classes of bronchodilatorsinhaled corticosteroids, B-agonists, cholinergic antagonists,methylxanthines, leukotriene modifiers
which respiratory drug and class of bronchodilators are prophylactic agentscromolyn and leukotriene modifiers
the main corticosteroid used to treat asthmaglucocorticoid hydrocortisone (cortisol)
what are glucocorticoidshormones produced in the adrenal cortex
other names for B-agonistbeta-adrenergic agonist, beta-agonist
define b-agonistsmedications that relax muscles of the airways resulting in easier breathing
which ailments are b-agonists most often used fortreatment of acute bronchospasms, prevention of exercise-induced asthma, treatment of COPD
which is shorter acting; albuterol or arformoterol albuterol
are b-agonists long acting or short actingshort acting
which receptors do b-agonists affectbeta adrenoceptors
why are b-agonists used for COPD because it involves acute bronchospasms
what do cholinergic antagonists doblocks bronchoconstriction caused by the activation of the parasympathetic nervous system
which bronchodilator classes can be used for COPD treatmentcholinergic antagonists, b-agonist
short-acting cholinergic antagonistipratropium
long-acting cholinerigc antagonisttiotropium
what do methylxanthines dorelax bronchial smooth muscles
what is the standard drug of methylxanthinestheophylline
the use of theophylline has been mostly replaced by whatinhaled corticosteroids and b-agonists
what can be used as alternatives to inhaled corticosteroids although they are less effectiveleukotriene modifiers
ailments leukotriene modifiers are typically used forallergies, the prophylactic treatment of chronic asthma
common examples of leukotriene modifiersmontelukast (singulair), zileuton (zyflo)
which drug is not used frequently today but is sometimes used in the treatment of asthmacromolyn
what does cromolyn doprevents the release of inflammatory agents such as histamine
example of a cholinergic antagonistipratropium
what group of bronchodilators is albuterol inb-agonists

gastrointestinal drugs

Question Answer
how are gastrointestinal drugs classifiedaccording to the areas of the GI tract they target
examples of areas of the GI tract that gastrointestinal drugs targetupper GI tract (stomach and duodenum), lower GI tract
typical disorders that arise in the upper GI tractacid reflux, gastric ulcers
what are duodenal and gastric ulcers often caused byhelicobacter pylori (H. pylori)
other than antibiotics, what can be bactericidal to helicobacter pyloripepto-bismol
If helicobacter pylori isn't the cause of duodenal and gastric ulcers then what are some treatmentsantacids, proton pump inhibitors, H2 antagonists
examples of antacidscalcium carbonate (Tums), magnesium salts, aluminum salts
side effects of the different antacidsaluminum salts and calcium carbonate may cause constipation while magnesium salts may cause diarrhea
what is done to try to offset side effects of antacidsthey are usually mixed
How to H2 antagonists workthey prevent histamine-induced acid release
typical H2 antagonistscimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine
suffix for H2 antagonists-tidine
what illnesses are H2 antagonists typically used forpeptic ulcer disease, short-term treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
moa of proton pump inhibitorsthe inhibit the H+K+ATPase enzyme of the parietal cells in the stomach, which reduces overall acid secretion
which treatment is more effective than H2 antagonists in treating gastric and duodenal ulcers and whyproton pump inhibitors due to their superior moa
examples of proton pump inhibitorsomeprazole (prilosec), esomeprazole (nexium), lansoprazole (prevacid)
what is diarrhea most often caused byan infection, toxin, drug
what is considered when wanting to treat the symptoms of lower GI tract disturbances or when bacterial infection is not the cause of diarrheaopiate or absorbent powders
examples of opiates used to treat diarrheadiphenoxylate (lomotil), loperamide (imodium)
absorbent powder used to treat diarrheakaopectate
constipation is effectively treated with which classifications of drugsbulk-forming agents, stimulants
examples of bulk forming agentscalcium polycarbophil, methylcellulose, psyllium (metamucil)
examples of stimulants used in constipation treatmentbisacodyl (dulcolax), danthron, phenolphthalein (exlax)
examples of inflammatory bowel diseasesCrohn's disease, ulcerative colitis
Which type of disorders does inflammatory bowel disease refer tolower GI tract disorders
treatment options of inflammatory bowel diseasesteroids, 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA)
what does irritable bowel syndrome involvebowel oversensitivity
what are two types of IBSIBS-C which is mainly constipation & IBS-D which presents diarrhea
which drug is used for both IBS-C and chronic treatmentLinaclotide (Linzess)
How does Linaclotide (Linzess) workreduces activation of colonic sensory neurons(which sense pain) and activates colonic motor neurons (which increases smooth muscle contraction and thus promotes bowel movement)
drug used in treatment of IBS-DRifaximin (Xifaxan)
What is a common side effect of long-term use of opiates for pain managementopioid-induced constipation (OIC)
drugs used for OIClubiprostone (Amitiza), methylnaltrexone bromide (Relistor)
which kind of agents are most commonly prescribed for respiratory disordersinhaled agents
which route of administration of drugs is rarely needed for respiratory and GI, diseases, which form is most commonly usedintravenous injection is rarely needed while oral medications are most commonly used
what are H2 antagonists also known asH2 blockers

comprehensive quiz

Question Answer
group of drugs that includes inhaled corticosteroids, b-agonists, cholinergic antagonists, and methylxanthinesbronchodilators
hormones produced in the adrenal cortex (example: cortisol)corticosteroids
short-acting drugs used for the treatment of acute bronchospasms (example: albuterol)b-agonists
agents that block bronchoconstriction caused by activation of the parasympathetic nervous systems (includes ipratropium)cholinergic antagonists
drugs that act as bronchodilators through the relaxation of the bronchial smooth muscles (example: theophylline)methylxanthines
alternatives to the inhaled corticosteroids (hydrocortisone) (example: montelukast)leukotriene modifiers
a bacteria that may cause duodenal and gastric ulcershelicobacter pylori (H. pylori)
typical antacid calcium carbonate
proton pump inhibitoromeprazole (Prilosec®)
stimulant that can be used for constipationbisacodyl (Dulcolax®)
Group 4, Lession 14 "Renal, Urinary, and Cardiovascular Drugs"