Group 4, Lession 14 "Renal, Urinary, and Cardiovascular Drugs"

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Cardiovascular drugs

Question Answer
what is the leading cause of death in the us and the worldcardiovascular disease
which condition can be prevented to greatly reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseaseatherosclerosis
what is atherosclerosisthickening of the atrial wall
which incidences does cardiovascular disease causearrhythmia, stroke, heart attack, heart failure
drugs used to treat cardiovascular diseaseantihypertensive drugs, antiarrhythmic drugs, lipid-lowering drugs
role of angiotensin II in the bodyconstrict blood vessels
what is the renin angiotensin system(RAS) is a hormone system that is involved in the regulation of the plasma sodium concentration and arterial blood pressure
which drug classes are antihypertensive drugscalcium channel blockers, nitrates, a&b blockers, drugs that interfere with the renin-angiotensin system, diuretics
what are renin-angiotensin system drugs known asACE inhibitors
How do renin-angiotensin system drugs workthey reduce blood pressure by blocking angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE)
examples of ACE inhibitorscaptopril, enalapril, benazepril
suffix for ACE inhibitors-pril
which illnesses are ACE inhibitors used forhigh blood pressure (hypertension), heart failure
other than angiotensin II receptor inhibitors, which other drugs block the angiotensin II receptorACE inhibitors
suffix for angiotensin II receptor inhibitors-sartan
examples of angiotensin II inhibitorscandesartan, eprosartan, losartan
what do selective aldosterone receptor antagonist drugs treatcardiovascular disease
examples of selective aldosterone receptor antagonist drugsspironolactone, eplerenone
subclasses of renin-angiotensin interference drugsangiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors), angiotensin II receptor inhibitors, selective aldosterone receptor antagonists
what are calcium channel blockersa group of drugs that inhibit the entry of calcium into cells
what do calcium channel blockers affectthe tone and contraction of the heart and vasculature (structure of the veins)
examples of calcium channel blockersdiltiazem, nifedipine, verapamil
what is the primary drug in the category of nitratesnitroglycerin
what is nitroglycerin typically administered sublingually to treat and why sublingually anginatreats angina sublingually because it is the fastest
which drugs reduce blood pressure but aren't commonly used in the treatment of hypertensionnitrates
examples of nitrates other than nitroglycerinamyl nitrite, isosorbide dinitrate
what do a-blockers docause vasodilation
what do b-blockers dothey decrease heart rate and cardiac output
both a- and b- blockers can be used to treat whathypertension
examples of a-blockersdoxazosin, prazosin, terazosin
examples of b-blockersatenolol, betaxolol, metoprolol
what are arrhythmiasfluctuations of the normal heart rythm
which drug classes treat arrhythmiasodium channel blockers, b-blockers, potassium channel blockers, calcium channel blockers
which sodium channel blockers are also local anestheticsprocainamide, lidocaine
examples of sodium channel blockerslidocaine, quinidine, procainamide
b-blockers work to do whatthey work to stabilize the cardiac membrane
examples of potassium channel blockersBretylium, amiodarone
what are two chemical classes of calcium channel blockersnondihydropyridine class, dihydropyridine class
drugs in dihydropyridine classamlodipine, barnidipine, nifedipine
drugs in nondihydropyridine classverapamil, diltiazem
what is the name for bad cholesterolLow-Density Lipoproteins (LDLs)
which ailments does high cholesterol have a strong correlation withheart disease, heart attacks, stroke
examples of major lipid lowering drugslovastatin, atorvastatin (Lipitor®), fluvastatin, rosuvastatin (Crestor®), simvastatin, cholestyramine, ezetimibe
when does Ischemic heart disease resultwhen the heart needs more oxygen than the body can supply
how do drugs treat Ischemic heart diseaseby working to lower the heart's demand for oxygen
which drug classes can be used to treat Ischemic heart diseaseb-blockers, nitrates

Renal and Urinary drugs

Question Answer
the urinary system is a part of what systemrenal system
which organs does the renal system consist ofbladder, ureters, kidneys, urethra
where is urine filtered before traveling to the bladderkidneys
In many cases, what do renal conditions result fromimbalance in blood volume and blood pressure
why are cardiovascular drugs important to the treatment of renal diseaseimbalances in blood pressure and volume is related to cardiac output
which organs do UTIs affectbladder, urethra, kidneys
which antibiotics are usually used to treat UTIsb-lactams such as penicillins and cephalosporins
examples of b-lactams used to treat UTIsamoxicillin, augmentin, keflex
other antibiotics other than b-lactams, that are used to treat UTIsfluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides
In addition to antibiotics, which drug may also be given to alleviate burning pain encountered during urinationphenazopyridine (Pyridium®)
common diseases of the renal systemUTI, kidney disease, incontinence
3 causes of incontinenceoveractive bladder, post-pregnancy pelvic prolapse, urine overflow (when bladder does not completely empty out when urinating)
methods of incontinence treatmentsurgery, drugs
classes of drugs that might be used for incontinencealpha-blockers, antispasmodics, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, and Imipramine
alpha-blockers are used to treat incontinence problems caused by what prostate enlargement, bladder outlet obstruction
examples of alpha blockers used for incontinencedoxazosin (Cardura®), tamsulosin (Flomax®), and terazosin (Hytrin®)
how do antispasmodics workby relaxing the bladder muscle and relieving spasms
examples of antispasmodics for incontinencepropantheline (Pro-Banthine®), tolterodine (Detrol LA®), oxybutynin (Ditropan XL®)
what is thought to be responsible for prostate enlargementDHT
how does the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor class of drugs workby inhibiting the production of the male hormone DHT
examples of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors finasteride (Proscar®), dutasteride (Avodart®)
what is the main drug in the Imipramine classTofranil®
Which classes does Tofranil® belong toimipramine class and tricyclic antidepressant drug class
how does Tofranil® workby relaxing the muscles and blocking nerve signals that might cause bladder spasms
when do kidney stones occur when chemicals (calcium oxalates) concentrate enough to form solid masses in the urinary tract
symptoms of kidney stonespain in the back and sides, blood may appear in the urine
most effective treatment for kidney stonesshock wave lithotripsy
how does shock wave lithotripsy workuses shock waves to disintegrate the kidney stones
what is kidney disease also known asnephropathy
which drugs can cause kidney diseaseanalgesics and chemotherapy drugs
long term use of which medications can cause chronic analgesic nephritis aspirin, acetaminophen, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
what is chronic analgesic nephritis an inflammation state in the kidneys
long term use of which drug can cause nephropathylithium
what is lithium used to treatbipolar disorder
what is kidney failureThis can be either a temporary or a chronic condition whereby the kidneys can’t filter waste from the blood
what is needed for kidney failure treatmentongoing dialysis treatments or kidney transplants
what can occur with long term use of lithiumnephropathy and sometimes kidney failure
how can diuretics be usedto decrease blood volume and are often used to treat high blood pressure
what are the three main groups of diureticsThiazide diuretics, Loop diuretics, Potassium-sparing diuretics
examples of thiazide diureticschlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide
drugs of choice for primary hypertensionthiazide diuretics
examples of loop diureticsfurosemide, bumetanide
examples of Potassium-sparing diureticsspironolactone, amiloride


Question Answer
common treatment for UTIsantibiotics
alpha blocker used to treat prostate enlargementdoxazosin (Cardura)
chlorothiazide drug classthiazide diuretic
enalapril drug classangiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor
diltiazem drug classcalcium channel blocker
atenololb-blocker that decreases heart rate and cardiac output
drug that reduces blood pressure (found in the group of nitrates)nitroglycerin
class of bretylium and amiodarone (used as antiarrhythmic drugs)potassium channel blockers
statin drugslipid-lowering drugs
name for “bad cholesterol”low-density lipoprotein (LDL)


Group 4, lesson 13 respiratory and gastrointestinal drugs