is produced by expelling the breath forcibly, with the throat only partially open.As in pronouncing German and Scotch ch, Spanish j, Irish gh, Russian x, Classical Greek χ etc. There are only a few words containing this consonant.
Diphthongs are combinations of two vowels uttered as a single sound, by one breath-impulse. The diphthongs in Esperanto contain an i or u sound as the second element, but in order to avoid confusion with combinations of vowels not forming diphthongs (as in naiva, like English naïve, etc.), they are written with j and ŭ instead. Their pronunciation is as follows:
like ai in aisle.
like ei in vein, ey in they.
like oi in coin, oy in boy.
like ui in ruin, u(e)y in gluey.
like ayw in wayward, or like é(h)oo pronounced together.
Each consonant, in a combination of two or more consonants
is pronounced with its full value, whether within a word or at its beginning. There are no silent letters.Thus, both consonants are clearly sounded in the groups kn, kv, gv, sv, in such words as knabo, kvin, gvidi, sviso.
The combination kz, as in ekzisti, ekzameno
must not be modified to the gs or ks represented by x in exist, execute.
The combination sc, as in escepte, scias
is equivalent to the combination sts in last said, first song, pronounced together rapidly.
The s in a word beginning with sc may be sounded with the end of the preceding word
if that word ends in a vowel, as mis-cias for mi scias.
The n and g are pronounced separately in the combination ng
in such words as lingvo, angulo, producing the sound of ng heard in linger, not that in singer.
Each of two similar letters is clearly sounded
as interrilato, ellasi, like inter-relate, well-laid.
-Words which express action or condition are called verbs. When representing an act or condition as a fact, and dealing with the present time, they are said to be in the present tense.
The ending of all Esperanto verbs in the present tense is: -as.
runs, is running.
flies, is flying.
shines, is shining.
sleeps, is sleeping.
-The person or thing whose action or condition the verb expresses is called, the subject of the verb
La suno brilas
the sun shines (is shining), subject suno.
a boy runs (is running), subject knabo.
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