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Grammer Esperanto Ivy Kellerman

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tinkerb01's version from 2016-06-21 22:41

Vowels

Question Answer
aas in far.
eas in fiancé, like a in fate.
i as in machine.
oas in toll, for.
uas in rude, rural.
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Consonents

Question Answer
The consonants b, d, f, h, k, l, m, n, p, t, v, zare pronounced as in English
clike ts in hats, tsetse.
ĉlike ch in chin, much.
glike g in go, big.
ĝlike g in gem, j in jar.
ĥis produced by expelling the breath forcibly, with the throat only partially open.As in pronouncing German and Scotch ch, Spanish j, Irish gh, Russian x, Classical Greek χ etc. There are only a few words containing this consonant.
jlike y in yes, beyond.
ĵlike z in azure, s in visual.
ris slightly trilled or rolled.
sike s in see, basis.
ŝlike sh in shine, rash, ch in machine.
ŭlike w or consonantal u. See Diphthongs,
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DIPHTHONGS.

Diphthongs are combinations of two vowels uttered as a single sound, by one breath-impulse. The diphthongs in Esperanto contain an i or u sound as the second element, but in order to avoid confusion with combinations of vowels not forming diphthongs (as in naiva, like English naïve, etc.), they are written with j and ŭ instead. Their pronunciation is as follows:
Question Answer
ajlike ai in aisle.
ejlike ei in vein, ey in they.
ojlike oi in coin, oy in boy.
ujlike ui in ruin, u(e)y in gluey.
like ayw in wayward, or like é(h)oo pronounced together.
like ou in out, ow in owl.
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COMBINATIONS OF CONSONANTS.

Question Answer
Each consonant, in a combination of two or more consonantsis pronounced with its full value, whether within a word or at its beginning. There are no silent letters.Thus, both consonants are clearly sounded in the groups kn, kv, gv, sv, in such words as knabo, kvin, gvidi, sviso.
The combination kz, as in ekzisti, ekzamenomust not be modified to the gs or ks represented by x in exist, execute.
The combination sc, as in escepte, sciasis equivalent to the combination sts in last said, first song, pronounced together rapidly.
The s in a word beginning with sc may be sounded with the end of the preceding wordif that word ends in a vowel, as mis-cias for mi scias.
The n and g are pronounced separately in the combination ngin such words as lingvo, angulo, producing the sound of ng heard in linger, not that in singer.
Each of two similar letters is clearly soundedas interrilato, ellasi, like inter-relate, well-laid.
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SYLLABLES.

Each word contains as many syllables as it has vowels and diphthongs. The division of syllables within a word is as follows
Question Answer
A single consonant goes with the following vowelas pa-no, be-la, a-e-ro.
A consonant followed by l or r (which are liquids) goes with the l or ras in ta-blo, a-kra, a-gra-bla. Otherwise the syllable division is made before the last consonant of the group, as sus-pek-ti, sank-ta, deks-tra.
Prefixes are separated from the words to which they are attachedas dis-meti, mal-akra
compound words are divided into their component partsas ĉef-urbo, sun-ombrelo.
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ACCENT.

Question Answer
Words of more than one syllable are accentedupon the syllable before the last, as tá-blo, a-grá-bla, sus-pék-ti.
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NOUNS.

Words which are the names of persons or things are called nouns. The ending, or final letter, of nouns in Esperanto is: o

THE ARTICLE.

Question Answer
The definite article isla, the
la knabothe boy
la ĉevalo the horse
la tablothe table
la pomothe apple.
In English there is an indefinite article "a, an" for the singular, but none for the plural. Esperantohas no indefinite article for either singular or plural. Therefore knabo may mean boy, or a boy, pomo may mean apple or an apple.
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ADJECTIVES

A word used with a noun (expressed or understood) to express a quality or characteristic is called an adjective.
Question Answer
The ending of adjectives in Esperanto isa
belabeautiful.
flavayellow.
grandalarge.
fortastrong.
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ATTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES.

-An adjective is said to modify a noun whose quality it expresses. When directly preceding or following its noun, it is called an attributive adjective:
Question Answer
la granda ĉevalothe large horse.
bela birdoa beautiful bird.
floro flavaa yellow flower.
forta knaboa strong boy.
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PRESENT TENSE OF THE VERB.

-Words which express action or condition are called verbs. When representing an act or condition as a fact, and dealing with the present time, they are said to be in the present tense.
The ending of all Esperanto verbs in the present tense is: -as.
Question Answer
kurasruns, is running.
flugasflies, is flying.
brilasshines, is shining.
dormassleeps, is sleeping.
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-The person or thing whose action or condition the verb expresses is called, the subject of the verb
Question Answer
La suno brilasthe sun shines (is shining), subject suno.
Knabo kurasa boy runs (is running), subject knabo.
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