Grammar 1

groovecase's version from 2015-08-06 04:38

Section 1

Question Answer
WHat is a participle phrase?A participle phrase will begin with a present or past participle. It acts as a modifier
How do present participles end?In ing
How do past participles end?Usually in ed. Irregular verbs have all sorts of past participles
What do participle phrases do? They act as modifiers. They can modify either nouns(adjectivial phrases) or verbs (adverbial Phrases)
What is the form of a perfect participleHaving + past participle. Eg having seen, having heard, having walked
What does the perfect participle modify?It almost always modifies the subject of the sentence. It is mostly in the active voice

Section 2

Question Answer
What is a transitive VerbA transitive verb has two characteristics. First, it is an action verb, expressing a doable activity like kick, want, paint, write, eat, clean, etc. Second, it must have a direct object, something or someone who receives the action of the verb
What is an intransitive verb?An intransitive verb has two characteristics. First, it is an action verb, expressing a doable activity like arrive, go, lie, sneeze, sit, die, etc. Second, unlike a transitive verb, it will not have a direct object receiving the action
What is a gerund? Give an examplea phrase with an ing verb that functions as a noun. Buying a new house is a very time consuming task.
What are the different roles of the ing verb?as part of a progressive verb, as a participle or modifier and as a gerund
What is the rule when using like vs as for comparisons?The word “like” is a preposition. That means it can be followed only by a noun, not a whole phrase. That means, “like” is useful for comparing nouns, but not useful for comparing actions. Correct: “Joey, like me, plays baseball.” (comparing two nouns, Joey & me.) Incorrect: “I enjoy playing baseball, like Joey does.” (comparing two actions).

Section 3

Question Answer
Wht is an adjective/adjectival clause? First, it will contain a subject and verb. Next, it will begin with a relative pronoun [who, whom, whose, that, or which] or a relative adverb [when, where, or why]. Finally, it will function as an adjective, answering the questions What kind? How many? or Which one?
What pattern does the adj clause follow?Relative Pronoun or Adverb + Subject + Verb Relative Pronoun as Subject + Verb

Section 4

Question Answer
How to identify adverb clauses?An adverb clause will meet three requirements: First, it will contain a subject and verb. You will also find a subordinate conjunction that keeps the clause from expressing a complete thought. Finally, you will notice that the clause answers one of these four adverb questions: How? When? Where? or Why?

Section 5

Question Answer
“like” vs. “as”The word “like” is a preposition, whose object is a noun, so it’s used for comparing noun-to-noun. The word “as” is a subordinating conjunction, which is followed by a full noun + verb clause, so it is used to compare events, actions.
lie vs laylie, lay, has lain. vs lay, laid, has laid present, past, past participle
rather than vs instead of rather than is widely applicable but instead of must have a noun at the end
Because of vs due toBecause of can appear almost anywhere in a sentence. because of rain, the picnic was cancelled. Because of the ground swell of popular support, the senate, senator reversed his position on endorsing the controversial candidate The picnic was cancelled because of rain. The senator reversed his position on endorsing the controversial candidate, because of a groundswell of popular support. Both of those are also 100% grammatically correct.due is an adjective, a noun modifier. As an adjective, due to could appear after the verb to be. the delay was due to rain.Also, due to can appear as a noun modifier touching a noun. The delay, due to rain, cost the company a significant amount of money. So that phrase, due to rain, is modifying the noun, delay
like vs such as like means similar to. When we are listing examples we need to use such as, not like.