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Grade 10 - Computer Hardware

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schoolstudycanada's version from 2017-06-27 02:53

Vocabulary

Question Answer
Bit1 or 0. (true or false)
BpsBits per second
Kbskilobits per second
Mbpsmega bits per second
Gbpsgiga bits per second
Tbpstera bits per second
Byte8 bits
KB(Kilobyte) 1000 bytes
MB(Megabyte) 1000 kilobytes
GB(Gigabytes) 1000 megabytes
TB(Terabytes) 1000 gigabytes
ASCII"American Standard Code for Information Interchange".
- Character encoding standard.
Main boardAlso known as motherboard
ChipsetChips on motherboard
FSB"Front-Side-Bus"
-
BIOSBasic. Input. Output. System. (tests the computer at startup)
RAMRandom. Access. Memory. Volatile memory (removes when computer restarts)
ROMRead. Only. Memory. This is the memory which stores the configuration information about the computer and is accessed during start up.
CMOSComplementary. Metal. Oxide. Semiconductor. battery found on computer motherboard. Keeps BIOS data when computer is turned off
Parallel port25 pin female. used for printers and interfacing.
Serial port9 pin male used for mice and connecting to routers and switches for the configuration of those devices
MIDI portMusical. Instrument. Device. Interface. used to allow you to connect musical instruments to the computer. 15 pin male connector on some sound cards.
USBUniversal. Serial. Bus. serial connector which is much faster than the 9 pin connector. Can be chained through a hub to support 255 devices.
EPROMErasable. programmable. read-only memory.
- special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light (whence it's erased it can be reprogrammed)
EEPROMElectrically Erasable Programmable Read-only Memory
- Special type of PROM
- erased by exposing to electrical charge
- requires data to be written one byte at a time
- retains data after power off
CacheA location for memory used to make data transfer between RAM and HD's faster
- Volatile (removed at shutdown)
Northbridge- a chip on the core logic chipset of a PC motherboard. -
Handles communications between CPU, RAM, AGP, PCle and the south bridge core chip.
- (Also called a memory controller HUB (MCH))
SouthbridgeChip that implements the slower capabilities of the motherboard. it is connected to the CPU through the Northbridge chip. also known as the Input/Output controlling station (ICH)
Boot DiskDisk or drive containing the operating system. tells which disks are used to boot from within BIOS screen
CPUcentral brain of the computer. resides on the system board and sits in some of the sockets.
Parallel port- 25 pin
- female
- used for printers and interfacing
- seen as LPT1 in windows
Serial Port- 9 pin
- male
- used for router and switch connection and configuration
- seen as COM1 in windows
USB port"Universal Serial Bus"
- 3 types
PS/26 pin-mini DIN connector
memorize

External System Board Connectors

Question Answer
PS/2 mouse portOld connector to mouse
PS/2 keyboard portOld connector to keyboard
USB port
Serial port
Parallel port
Monitor port
Network card (RJ45 connector)
Audio ports
Gaming port (joystick)
115 or 220 VAC setting switch
Power plug
Power supply
memorize

CPU

Question Answer
CPUCentral Processing Unit
Instruction Setcontains commands such as ADD or MOVE which the computer directly performs.
CISC"Complex Instruction Set Computing"
- Means 80% of computer internal processing is performed by small number of frequently used instructions
RISC"Reduced Instruction Set Computing"
- reduces number of instructions in set to only those that are most frequently used
Machine Language Instruction- Comprised of two parts, operation code (opcode) and operand
OpcodeTells computer what to do and matches commands in instruction set
OperandSpecifies data or location of data that will be used by instruction
MIPS"Million Instructions Per Second"
- A method to measure CPU speed
Pipelining Processing- A "QUE" system for CPU processing (FIFO = First In First Out)
- An instruction needs to go through all 4 stages of processing before a new instruction can be started
Parallel Processing- Involves use of multiple CPU's with their own allocated memory.
- Divide a problem such that the CPU's can work on an assigned segment simultaneously.
- Require special software to divide and bring results back together
memorize

Memory

Question Answer
RAMRandom Access Memory
SIMM"Single in-line Memory"
- Old memory module type.
- Must install two SIMM's at a time
DIMM"Dual in-line Memory"
- Two SIMM's in one
DDR--NN--
SRAMStatic Ram
- Efficient and fast memory
- Used as cache memory
DRAMDynamic RAM
RDRAMRambus DRAM
- found in high performance computers
SDRAMSynchronous Dynamic RAM
- most popular type of primary memory used in computers (<--- not sure if accurate)
Cache RAMStores recently used data and works directly with CPU and RAM
Memory SpeedMeasured in ns (nanoseconds) or MHz (megahertz)
memorize

System or "Mother" board components

Question Answer
Memory slotsocket on a system board where a memory module (RAM) sits
Chipsetseries of integrated chips (IC's) that contain instructions for controlling movement of data throughout the system board
Portallows the system board to communicate with an external device
Power connectora socket on the system board that is used to supply power to the board
Expansion slota socket which accepts expansion cards (adding peripheral devices to the computer)
Jumpersallow for configuring settings on a system board [elaborate]
Processor socketHolds the CPU
memorize

Frequency measurement

Question Answer
Hertz (Hz)1 Cycle per second
MHz1 Million cycles per second
GHz1 Billion cycles per second
memorize