Govt8 chapter 6-10

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Chapter 6

Question Answer
The belief that the government is controlled by one or more elite groups.elite theory
The difficulty that exists when individuals can enjoy the outcome of an interest group's efforts without having to contribute, such as by becoming members of the rider problem
An organized group of individuals sharing common objectives who actively attempt to influence policymakers.interest group
The belief that public policy is or should be set in accordance with the opinions of a majority of the people.majoritarianism
A reason to join an interest group - practical benefits such as discounts, subscriptions, or group insurance.material incentive
A theory that views politics as a contest among various interest groups - at all levels of government - to gain benefits for their members.pluralist theory
A reason to join an interest group - satisfaction resulting from working for a cause in which one believes.purposive incentive
A reason to join an interest group - pleasure in associating with like-minded individuals.solidary incentive
All of the people over the age of sixteen who are working or actively looking for jobs.labor force
An interest group formed for the purpose of working for the "pubic good".public-interest group
Laws that ban unions from collecting dues or other fees from workers whom they represent but who have not actually joined the union.right-to-work laws
An association formed by members of a particular industry to develop common standards and goals for the organization
Any method used by an interest group to interact with government officials directly to further the group's technique
An expenditure for activities that are independent from those of a political candidate or a political part.independent expenditure
Any method used by interest groups to influence government officials through third parties, such as voters.indirect technique
All of the attempts by organizations or by individuals to influence the passage, defeat, or contents of legislation or to influence the administrative decisions of government.lobbying
An individual who handles a particular interest group's lobbying efforts.lobbyist
A committee that is established by a corporation, labor union, or special interest group to raise funds and make campaign contributions on the establishing organization's behalf.political action committee (PAC)
A system by which a particular interest group evaluates (rates) the performance of legislators based on how often the legislators have voted with the group's position on particular issues.rating system

Chapter 7

Question Answer
A nickname for the Republican Party.GOP
A group of individuals who organize to win elections, operate the government, and determine policypolitical party
A process in which the popular support for and relative strength of the parties shift and the parties are reestablished with different coalitions of supportersrealignment
Among voters, a growing detachment from both major political partiesdealignment
An alliance of individuals or groups with a variety of interests and opinions who join together to support all or part of a political party's platformcoalition
The political party that has more members in the legislature than the opposing partymajority party
The political party that has fewer members in the legislature than the opposing partyminority party
A preliminary election held for the purpose of choosing a party's final candidateprimary
All of the citizens eligible to vote in a given election.electorate
The meeting held by each major party every four years to nominate presidential and vice presidential candidates, write a party platform, and conduct other party business.national convention
An individual who serves as a political party's administrative head at the national level and directs the work of the party's national committee.national party chairperson
The political party leaders who direct party business during the four years between the national party conventions, organize the next national convention, and plan how to support the party's candidate in the next presidential election.national party committee
A party member who helps to organize and oversee party functions and planning during and between campaigns, and may even become a candidate for activist
A person who identifies himself as being a supporter of a particular political identifier
The document drawn up by each party at its national convention that outlines the policies and positions of the platform
A list of a political party's candidates for various offices. In national elections, the party ticket consists of the presidential and vice-presidential candidatesparty ticket
A system of rewarding the party faithful and workers with government jobs or contracts.patronage
A political district within a cityprecinct
Mutual agreement among the members of a particular group.solidarity
A local unit of a political party's organization, consisting of a division or district within a city.ward
In the United States, any party other than the two major parties.third party
A political system in which two strong and established parties compete for political office.two-party system

Chapter 8

Question Answer
People and institutions that influence the political views of others.agents of political socialization
Newspapers, magazines, television, radio, the internet, and any other printed or electronic means of
Associates, often close in age to one another.peer group
The learning process through which most people acquire their political attitudes, opinions, beliefs, and knowledgepolitical socialization
The views of the citizenry about politics, public issues, and public policiespublic opinion
A poll sample that does not accurately represent the population.biased sample
In the case of a polling firm, a consistent tendency to report results more favorable to one of the political parties than the results reported by other effect
A survey of the public's opinion on a particular topic at a particular moment.public opinion poll
A campaign tactic used to feed false or misleading information to potential voters, under the guise of taking an opinion poll, with the intent to "push" voters away from one candidate toward another.push poll
In the context of opinion polling, a sample in which each person within the entire population being polled has an equal chance of being chosen.random sample
In the context of opinion polling, a group of people selected to represent the population being studies.sample
In the context of opinion polling, the difference between what the sample results show and what the true results would have been had everybody in the relevant population been interviewed.sampling error
A nonscientific poll in which there is no way to ensure that the opinions expressed are representative of the larger population.straw poll
The difference between the percentage of voted cast for a particular candidate by women and the percentage by men.gender gap
A term used to describe the tendency of the southern states to vote Democratic after the Civil War.Solid South
A clause in a state law that had the effect of restricting voting rights to those whose ancestors had voted before the 1860s.grandfather clause
A test given to voters to ensure that they could read and write.literacy test
A fee of several dollars that had to be paid before a person could vote.poll tax
A primary election in which African Americans were prohibited from voting.white primary
The number of people who are actually eligible to vote in an American population
The number of people residing in the United States who are at least eighteen years population

Chapter 9

Question Answer
A secret ballot that is prepared, distributed, and counted by government officials at public expense; used by all states in the United States since 1888.Australian ballot
The comprehensive plan developed by a candidate and his or her advisers for winning an election.campaign strategy
A meeting held to choose political candidates or delegates.caucus
A primary in which only party members can vote to choose that party's candidates.closed primary
A committee of each national political party that evaluates the claims of national party convention delegates to be the legitimate representatives of their states.Credentials Committee
A person selected to represent the people of one geographic area at a party convention.delegate
An election held within each of the two major parties (Democratic and Republican) to choose the party's candidates for the general election. Voters choose the candidate directly, rather than through primary
A member of the electoral college.elector
The group of electors who are selected by the voters in each state to officially elect the president and vice president. The number of electors in each state is equal to the number of that state's representatives in both chambers of Congress.electoral college
A regularly scheduled election to choose the U.S. president, vice president, and senators and representatives in Congress. General elections are held in even-numbered years on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November.general election
An expenditure for activities that are independent from (not coordinated with) those of a political candidate or a political party.independent expenditure
An official meeting of a political party to choose its candidates.nominating convention
A primary in which voters can vote for a party's candidates regardless of whether they belong to the primary
The attempt to learn damaging information about an opponent in a political campaign.opposition research
A professional political adviser who, for a fee, works on an area of a candidate's campaign. Political consultants include campaign managers, pollsters, media advisers, and “get out the vote”organizers.political consultant
A representative from one of the political parties who is allowed to monitor a polling place to make sure that the election is run fairly and that fraud doesn't occur.poll watcher
An election in which voters choose the candidates of their party, who will then run in the general election.primary election
Campaign contributions not regulated by federal law, such as some contributions that are made to political parties instead of to particular candidates.soft money
An election that is held at the state or local level when the voters must decide an issue before the next general election or when vacancies occur by reason of death or resignation.special election
A system in which the candidate who receives the most votes wins. In contrast, proportional systems allocate votes to multiple winners.winner-take-all system

Chapter 10

Question Answer
The media's ability to determine which issues are considered important by the public and by politicians.agenda setting
The collection, analysis, and dissemination of information online by independent journalists, scholars, politicians, and the general citizenry.citizen journalism
Communication channels that involve electronic transmissions, such as radio, television, and the Internet.electronic media
An agenda-setting technique that establishes the context of a media report. Framing can mean fitting events into a familiar story or filtering information through pre-conceived ideas.framing
A political advertisement that focuses on a particular issue. Issue ads can be used to support or attack a candidate's position or credibility.issue ad
News coverage that is manipulated (managed) by a campaign manager or political consultant to gain media exposure for a political candidate.managed news-coverage
Communication channels, such as newspapers and radio and television broadcasts, through which people can communicate to large audiences.mass media
Political advertising undertaken for the purpose of discrediting an opposing candidate in voters' eyes. Attack ads are one form of negative political advertising.negative political advertising
A negative political advertisement that attacks the character of an opposing candidate.personal attack ad
The distribution of audio or video files to personal computers or mobile devices such as smartphones.podcasting
Advertising undertaken by or on behalf of a political candidate to familiarize voters with the candidate and his or her views on campaign issues; advertising for or against policy issues.political advertising
An agenda setting technique in which a media outlet promotes specific facts or ideas that may affect the public's thinking on related topics.priming
Communication channels that consist of printed materials, such as newspapers and magazines.print media
A televised comment, lasting for only a few seconds, that captures a thought or a perspective and has an immediate impact on viewers.sound bite
A reporter's slant on, or interpretation of, a particular event or action.spin
A political candidate's press adviser who tries to convince reporters to give a story or event concerning the candidate a particular “spin”(interpretation, or slant).spin doctor