Govt8 chapter 15-16

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Chapter 15

Question Answer
Getting an issue on the political agenda to be addressed by Congress; part of the first stage of the policymaking process.agenda setting
Public policy concerning issues within a national unit, such as national policy concerning health care or the economy.domestic policy
The procedures involved in getting an issue on the political agenda; formulating, adopting, and implementing a policy with regard to the issue; and then evaluating the results of the policy.policymaking process
A joint federal-state program that provides free health-care insurance for low income children.Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP)
A government program that provides benefits to all persons who meet specified requirements.entitlement program
In the context of health-care reform, a requirement that all persons obtain health-care insurance from one source or another. Those failing to do so must pay a penalty.individual mandate
A joint federal-state program that pays for health-care services for low income persons.Medicaid
A federal government program that pays for health-care services for Americans aged sixty-five years and over.Medicare
A program, found in many of the world's economically advanced nations, under which the central government provides basic health-care insurance coverage to everyone in the country.national health insurance
The increase in the average temperature of the Earth's surface over the last half century and its projected continuation; also referred to more generally as global warmingclimate change
A set of federal standards under which each vehicle manufacturer (or the industry as a whole) must meet a miles-per-gallon benchmark averaged across all new cars or trucks.Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards
Technique for extracting oil or natural gas from underground rock by the high-power injection of a mixture of water, sand, and chemicals.fracking
A gas that, when released into the atmosphere, traps the sun's heat and slows its release into outer space. Carbon dioxide is a major example.greenhouse gas
Energy from technologies that do not rely on extracted resources, such as oil and coal, that can run out.renewable energy
The principle that for every government action, there will be a reaction by the public.action-reaction-syndrome
A monetary policy that involves stimulating the economy by expanding the rate of growth of the money supply.easy-money policy
All actions taken by the national government to address ups and downs in the nation's level of business activity.economic policy
The most important body within the Federal Reserve System; decides how monetary policy should be carried out.Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC)
The use of changes in government expenditures and taxes to alter national economic variables.fiscal policy
A sustained rise in average prices; equivalent to a decline in the value of the dollar.inflation
An economic theory proposed by British economist John Maynard Keynes that is typically associated with the use of fiscal policy to alter national economic variables.Keynesian economics
Actions taken by the Federal Reserve Board to change the amount of money in circulation to affect interest rates, credit markets, the rate of inflation, the rate of economic growth, and the rate of unemployment.monetary policy
The total amount of money that the national government owes as a result of borrowing; also called the national debt.public debt
A period in which the level of economic activity falls; usually defined as two or more quarters of economic decline.recession
The state of not having a job even when actively seeking one.unemployment

Chapter 16

Question Answer
A systematic and general plan that guides a country's attitudes and actions toward the rest of the world. Includes all of the economic, military, commercial, and diplomatic positions and actions that a nation takes.foreign policy
In foreign policy, the belief that the most important goal is to do what is right. Moral idealists think that it is possible for nations to cooperate as part of a rule-based economy.moral idealism
In foreign policy, the belief that nations are inevitably selfish and that we should seek to protect our national security, regardless of moral arguments.political realism
The war of words, warnings and ideologies between the Soviet Union and the United States that lasted from the late 1940s through the late 1980s.Cold War
A group of dependent nations that are under the rule of an imperial power.colonial empire
A U.S. policy designed to contain the spread of communism by offering military and economic aid to threatened nations.containment
A nuclear standoff that occurred in 1962 when the United States learned that the Soviet Union had placed nuclear warheads in Cuba.Cuban missile crisis
A French word meaning a "relaxation of tensions." Characterized the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1970s as they attempted to pursue cooperative dealings and arms control.detente
A policy of building up military strength for the purpose of discouraging military attacks by other nations; the policy that supported the arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War.deterrence
Direct involvement by in country in another county's affairs.interventionism
A phrase coined by Winston Churchill to describe political boundaries between the democratic countries in Western Europe and the Soviet-controlled Communist countries in Eastern Europe.iron curtain
A political policy of non involvement in world affairs.isolationism
A plan providing for economic assistance to European nations following World War II to help those nations recover from the war. Named after George C. Marshall, secretary of state from 1947 to 1949.Marshall Plan
A U.S. policy, announced in 1823 by president James Monroe, that the United Stated would not tolerate foreign intervention in the Western Hemisphere, and in return, the United States would stay out of European affairs.Monroe Doctrine
A phrase referring to the assumption that if the forces of two nations are capable of destroying each other, neither nation will take a chance on war.mutually assured destruction
The position of not being aligned with either side in a dispute or conflict, such as a war.neutrality
The group of Eastern European nations that fell under the control of the Soviet Union following World War II.Soviet bloc
An alliance of nations formed to undertake a foreign policy action, particularly a military action. Is often a temporary alliance that dissolves after the action is concluded.coalition
The Islamic State in Iraq and Greater Syria; a terrorist organization that by 2014 had taken over substantial portions of Iraq and Syria. Also known as ISIL or the Islamic State.ISIS
Chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons that can inflict massive casualties.weapons of mass destruction
The first agreement signed between Israel and the PLO; led to the establishment of the Palestinian Authority in the occupied territories.Oslo Accords
An organization formed in 1964 to represent the Palestinian people. The PLO has a long history of terrorism but for some years has functioned primarily as a political party.Palestine Liberation Organization
A trade status granted through an international treaty by which each member nation must treat other members at least as well as it treats the country that receives its most favorable treatment.normal trade relations status