Govt8 chapter 11-14

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Chapter 11

Question Answer
The distribution of House seats among the states on the basis of their respective populations.apportionment
The geographic area that is served by one member in the House of Representatives.congressional district
Spending provision inserted into legislation that benefits only a small number of people.earmark
The drawing of legislative district's boundaries in such a way as to maximize the influence of a certain group or political party.gerrymandering
A representative who deliberately mirrors the views of the majority of his or her constituents.instructed delegate
A condition in which the voting power of citizens in one district is greater than the voting power of citizens in another district.malapportionment
A district in which minority groups make up a majority of the population.minority-majority district
A rule, or principle, requiring that congressional districts have equal populations so that one person's vote counts as much as another's vote."one person, one vote" rule
A representative who tries to serve the broad interests of the entire society and not just the narrow interests of his or her constituents.trustee
A procedure for ending filibusters in the Senate and bringing the matter under consideration to a vote.cloture
The Senate tradition of unlimited debate undertaken for the purpose of preventing action on a bill.filibustering
The party leader elected by the majority party in the House or in the Senate.majority leader
The party leader elected by the minority party in the House or in the Senate.minority leader
A standing committee in the House that provides special rules governing how particular bills will be considered and debated.Rules Committee
The presiding officer in the House of Representatives. A member of the majority party who is the most powerful member of the house.Speaker of the House
A permanent committee in Congress that deals with legislation concerning a particular area, such as agriculture or foreign relations.standing committee
A division of a larger committee that deals with a particular part of the committee's policy area.subcommittee
A member of Congress who assists the minority or minority leader in managing the party's legislative program.whip
A temporary committee that consists of members from the House and the Senate who work out a compromise bill.conference committee
A report submitted by a conference committee after it has drafted a single version of a bill.conference report
A meeting held by a congressional committee or subcommittee to approve, amend, or redraft a bill.markup session
A special type of veto power used by the president after the legislature has adjourned.pocket veto
Changing Senate rules - in particular, rules that require a supermajority - by simple majority vote. Also known as the constitutional option.nuclear option
The determination of how many dollars will be spent in a given year on a particular government activity.appropriation
The creation of the legal basis for government programs.authorization
A twelve month period (Oct 1 - Sep 30 for US gov) that is established for bookkeeping or accounting purposes.fiscal year
A budget resolution, which is supposed to be passed in May, that sets the overall revenue goals and spending targets for the next fiscal year.first budget resolution
A budget resolution, which is supposed to be passed in September, that sets "binding" limits on taxes and spending for the next fiscal year.second budget resolution
A temporary resolution that enables executive agencies to continue work with the same funding that they had in the previous fiscal year.continuing resolution
A government program that allows, or entitles, a certain class of people to receive benefits.entitlement program

Chapter 12

Question Answer
The role of the president of the United States in recognizing and interacting with foreign governments.chief diplomat
The head of the executive branch of government; in the United States, the president.chief executive
The supreme commander of a nation's military force.commander in chief
A person who represents one country in dealing with representatives of another country.diplomat
The person who serves as the ceremonial head of a country's government and represents that country to the rest of the world.head of state
The practice by which elected officials give government jobs to individuals who helped them gain office.patronage
A binding international agreement, or pact, that is made between the president and another head of state and that does not require Senate approval.executive agreement
A presidential order to carry out a policy or policies described in a law passed by Congress.executive order
A written statement, appended to a bill at the time the president signs it into law, indicating how the president interprets that legislation.signing statement
A formal agreement between the governments of two or more countries.treaty
A Latin word meaning "I forbid"; the refusal by an official, such as the president of the United States or a state governor, to sign a bill into law.veto
An inherent executive power claimed by presidents to withhold information from, or to refuse to appear before, Congress or the courts. The president can also accord the privilege to other executives.executive privilege
A scandal involving an illegal break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in 1972 by members of President Richard Nixon's reelection campaign staff.Watergate scandal
An advisory group selected by the president to assist with the decision making. Traditionally, the cabinet has consisted of the heads of the executive departments and other officers whom the president may choose to appoint.cabinet
The person who directs the operations of the White House Office and advises the president on important matters.chief of staff
A groups of staff agencies that assist the president in carrying out major duties.Executive Office of the President (EOP)
The name given to a president's unofficial advisors. The term was coined during Andrew Jackson's cabinet
A council that advises the president on domestic and foreign matters concerning the safety and defense of the nation.National Security Council (NSC)
An agency in the Executive Office of the President that has the primary duty of assisting the president in preparing and supervising the administration of the federal budget.Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
A member of the White House staff who holds news conferences for reporters and makes public statements for the secretary
The personal office of the president. White House Office personnel handle the president's political needs and mange the media, among other duties.White House Office

Chapter 13

Question Answer
A large, complex, hierarchically structured administrative organization that carries out specific functions.bureaucracy
An individual who works in a bureaucracy. As generally used, the term refers to a government employee.bureaucrat
An agency of the government that is run as a business enterprise. Such agencies engage primarily in commercial activities, produce revenues, and require greater flexibility than most government agencies havegovernment corporation
A federal agency that is not located within a cabinet department.independent executive agency
A federal organization that is responsible for creating and implementing rules that regulate private activity and protect the public interest in a particular sector of the economy.independent regulatory agency
Political actions or decisions that benefit a particular party.partisan politics
Nonmilitary government employees.civil service
To render a judicial decision. In administrative law, it is the process in which an administrative law judge hears and decides issues that arise when an agency charges a person or firm with violating a law or regulation enforced by the agency.adjudicate
A law enacted by a legislature to establish an administrative agency. Normally specifies the name, purpose, composition, and powers of the agency being created.enabling legislation
A three-way alliance among legislators, bureaucrats, and interest groups to make or preserve policies that benefit their respective interests.iron triangle
Groups of individuals or organizations - which consist of legislators and legislative staff members, interest group leaders, bureaucrats, the media, scholars. and other experts - that support particular policy positions on a given issue.issue networks
An administrative agency rule that carries the same weight as a statute enacted by a legislature.legislative rule
The application of technical skills to jobs without regard to political issues.neutral competency
The process undertaken by an administrative agency when formally proposing, evaluating, and adopting a new regulation.rulemaking
The transfer of the task of providing services traditionally provided by the government to the private sector.privatization
In the context of government employment, someone who "blows the whistle" (reports to authorities or the press) on gross government inefficiency, illegal action, or other wrongdoing.whistleblower

Chapter 14

Question Answer
The body of law created by administrative agencies (in the form of rules, regulations, orders, and decisions) in order to carry out their duties and responsibilities.administrative law
The rules of law announced in court decisions. Includes the aggregate of reported cases that interpret judicial precedents, statues, regulations, and constitutional law
The branch of law that spells out the duties that individuals in society owe to other persons or to their governments, excluding the duty not to commit crimes.civil law
The body of law developed from judicial decisions in English and U.S. courts, not attributable to a legislature.common law
Law based on the U.S. Constitution and the constitutions of the various states.constitutional law
A ruling that a person has disobeyed a court order or has shown disrespect to the court or to a judicial proceeding.contempt of court
The branch of law that defines and governs actions that constitute crimes. Generally, has to do with wrongful actions committed against society for which society demands redress.criminal law
A basis for federal court jurisdiction over a lawsuit that arises when (1) the parties in the lawsuit live in different states or when one of the parties is a foreign government or a foreign citizen, and (2) the amount in controversy is more than $75,000.diversity of citizenship
A question that pertains to the U.S. Constitution, acts of Congress, or treaties. Provides a basis for federal court jurisdiction.federal question
The courts; one of the three branches of government in the United States.judiciary
The authority of a court to hear and decide a particular case.jurisdiction
A controversy that is not hypothetical or academic but real and substantial; a requirement that must be satisfied before a court will hear a case.justiciable controversy
A court decision that furnishes an example or authority for deciding subsequent cases involving identical or similar facts and legal issues.precedent
A source of law that establishes the law. Include constitutions, statutes, administrative agency rules and regulations, and decisions rendered by courts.primary source of law
A common law doctrine under which judges normally are obligated to follow the precedents established by prior court decisions.stare decisis
The body of law enacted by legislatures (as opposed to constitutional law, administrative law, or case law).statutory law
The requirement that an individual must have a sufficient stake in controversy before he or she can bring a lawsuit. The party bringing the suit must demonstrate that he or she has either been harmed or been threatened with harm.standing to sue
A court in which trials are held and testimony is taken.trial court
A court having appellate jurisdiction. Normally does not hear evidence or testimony but reviews the transcript of the trial court's proceedings, other records relating to the case, and attorneys' arguments as to why the trial court's decision should or should not stand.appellate court
A statement written by a judge or justice who agrees (concurs) with the court's decision, but for reasons different from those in the majority opinion.concurring opinion
In regard to the Supreme Court, a private meeting of the justices in which they present their arguments concerning a case under consideration.conference
A statement written by a judge or justice who disagrees with the majority opinion.dissenting opinion
A written statement by a court expressing the reasons for its decision in a case.opinion
A spoken argument presented to a judge in person by an attorney on behalf of her or his client.oral argument
An order from a higher court asking a lower court for the record of a case.writ of certiorari
A practice that allows a senator of the president's party to veto the president's nominee to a federal court judgeship within the senator's state.senatorial courtesy
The power of the courts to decide on the constitutionality of legislative enactments and of actions taken by the executive branch.judicial review


Govt8 chapter 15-16