Government Campaigns & Elections

danessa's version from 2015-10-05 15:30

Section 1

Question Answer
Incumbentsomeone who is holding office & seeking reelection
90%how many incumbents get reelected
Name Recognitionwhy incumbents get reelected
Electorial Darwinismstrong incumbents draw weak challengers & vice versa

Section 2

Question Answer
PACPolitical Action Committees
PACgives $5000 to candidate & any amount to party
Frankingallowed to send mail for free
Take Credit / Place Blamewhy they are doing good & other party is not
Direct Democracycitizens participate directly in govt affairs
Indirect Democracyformal procedures for voting & formal mechanisms for citizen participation

Section 3

Question Answer
1971lowered voting age from 21 to 18
15th Amendmentblack males right to vote
19th Amendmentwomen right to vote
26th Amendmentlowered voting age
1965Voting Rights Act
Voting Rights Actsuspended the remaining voting test, which discriminated against blacks
1869no women allowed to vote until then
192019th Amendment ratified giving all women the right to vote

Section 4

Question Answer
Eligible Votersanyone who meets the requirements
Registered Votersvoters who are registered & show up
Eligible Voters50% presidential elections & 30% midterm elections
Registered Voters85% show up for presidential elections

Section 5

Question Answer
Direct Political Actionriots, protests, etc...
Runoff Electionswhen 1 candidate doesn't receive a majority vote
Referendumrepresentatives allow voters to make policies
Moneyreferendums are usually over this
Robert Putnamstudied bowling & saw that #'s were up but people don't join groups anymore
Direct Political Action Reasonsdistrust political system, have strong sense of political efficacy, & have highly developed sense of group consciousness

Section 6

Question Answer
Political Gerrymanderingredrawing districts for political advantage
Reapportionmentredistribution of House seats
Racial Gerrymanderingredrawing districts to get more minorities into office
Well Acceptedpolitical gerrymandering
Ruled Unconstitutionalracial gerrymandering
Wesbury vs. Sanders (1963)Supreme Court ruled that districts must be based on population & not size
Shaw vs. Reno (1993)Congressional districts must be continuous; must be 1
Miller vs. Johnson (1995)cannot draw districts to benefit one race over another

Section 7

Question Answer
Provisional Ballotvote then check the legality at another date
Australian Ballota.k.a. neutral ballot
Butterfly Ballotolder people had large font but voted wrong
Faithless Electorschosen by party & cast ballots in state capitals
12th Amendmentcandidates running together can come from same state but then they lose that states electoral college votes

Section 8

Question Answer
Pollingcandidates cannot change a lot or it will hurt them in votes
Primariesthey are plurality elections
Conventiontry to receive party nomination

Section 9

Question Answer
1 billion dollarsavg. cost spent in a presidential election year
2 billion dollarshow much Obama & Biden spent in 2012 election campaign
Housespends avg. 1.6 million
Senatespends avg. 10.4 million
1/3Senate seats up for reelection

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