jennifer12345's version from 2017-10-17 15:38

Section 1

Question Answer
Decongestants- examplesPseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, oxymetazoline, naphazoline
Decongestants- mechanism of actiondisplace norepinephrine from presynaptic vesicles, causes vasocontriction
Decongestants- patient precautionsHTN, CAD, do not use sustained release in children or elderly
Decongestants- adverse effectsCNS excitability, arrhythmias, HTN, increased intraocular pressure, rebound congestion
Antihistamines- examplesdiphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine, brompheniramine
Antihistamines- mechanism of actioncompetively compete with histamine for receptors blocking the action of histamine
Antihistamines- adverse effectsCNS depression, anticholinergic effects: dry eyes, dry mouth, urinary retention, constipation
Examples of non-sedating antihistaminesloratidine (claritin), certirizine (zyrtec)
Antacids- patient precautionsrenal insufficiency, watch for sodium content
Histamine-2 blockers examplescimetidine (tagamet), ranitidine (zantac), famotidine (pepcid), nizatidine (axid)
Proton pump inhibitor- examplesomeprazole (prilosec OTC)

Section 2

Question Answer
Bismuth subsalicylate (pepto-bismol kaopectate)inhibits intestinal secretions
Loperamide (immodium)acts through opioid receptor to inhibit peristalsis
Fiber (metamucil)add bulk to stool

Section 3

Question Answer
What are the most predominant minerals?calcium and phosphorus
Major minerals includemagnesium, potassium, sodium, calcium, and phosphorus

Section 4

Question Answer
C-2morphine, hydrocodone
C-3acetaminophen with codeine
C-4alprazolam, tramadol
C-5diphenoxalate/atropine (lomotil)

Section 5

Question Answer
Pain mediators includehistamine, neutrophil & eosinophil chemotactic factor, leukotrienes, prostaglandins
Prostaglandin actions includeincrease vascular permeability, inflammation, contract smooth muscle, increase hyperalgesia in sensory fibers
COX-1leads to prostaglandin formation to protect gastric mucosa, maintain normal renal function, temp
COX-2 leads to prostaglandins that promote inflammation
Where is COX-2 found?brain & kidney
Where is COX-1 found? blood vessels, stomach, kidney

Section 6

Question Answer
NSAIDS- mechanism of actioninhibition of cyclooxygenase, decreased production prostaglandins in CNS & PNS
NSAIDS- indicationsarthritis, mild-mod pain, fever, inflammation
NSAIDS- kineticsoral, variable first pass effect, highly protein bound with onset 30 min. Inflammatory response days to weeks
NSAIDS- adverse effectsGI distress, sedation, confusion, headache, dizziness, rash, fever, tachycardia, acute bronchospasm, increased Cr
NSAIDS- cautionselderly, end of pregnancy, asthmatics, ulcers, history GI bleeding, renal or hepatic disease
NSAIDS- drug interactionsincreased effect anticoagulants & anti platelets, metabolism CYP drugs
NSAIDS- examplesaspirin, diclofenac (voltaren), diflunisal (dolobid), etodolac (lodine), ibuprofen (mortin), naproxen (aleve)
Acetaminophen- mechanism of actiondirect action on hypothalamic heat regulating center, inhibits pyrogenic cytokines
True or false: acetaminophen inhibits peripheral prostaglandin synthetase?False
Acetaminophen- indicationsfever, mild to mod pain
Acetaminophen- kineticsrapidly absorbed orally, onset 30 min, metabolized in the liver and excreted in the kidney
Acetaminophen- adverse effectsrash, fever, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, jaundice. Side effects rare, usually dose dependent
Acetaminophen- interactionscaution with hepatic disease, increased hepatotoxicity with barbiturates, phenytoin, etoh, rifampin, warfarin

Section 7

Question Answer
Opioid Agonistsmorphine, codeine, levorphanol, meperidine, methadone
Opioid Agonist-Antagonistsbuprenorphine, butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine, tramadol
Opioid Antagonistsnaloxone, naltrexone, alvimopan, methylnaltrexone

Section 8

Question Answer
Anticonvulsantsuse for neuropathic pain
Corticosteroids use for inflammatory pain

Section 9